Document Detail

Beta-hexosaminidase: biosynthesis and processing of the normal enzyme, and identification of mutations causing Jewish Tay-Sachs disease.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7628066     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: This report presents an overview of the nearly 100-year history of the study of Tay-Sachs disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Each major step leading to our present understanding of the disease are highlighted. RESULTS: The original interest in the cause of this devastating disease in the late 1800s led to the identification of a novel glycolipid. GM2 ganglioside, stored in the neurons of Tay-Sachs patients in the 1930s, and the elucidation of its structure in the 1960s. The identification of the defective isozyme, beta-hexosaminidase A, followed in 1968-69. Elucidation of the subunit structures of the hexosaminidase A (alpha beta) and B (beta beta) isozymes in 1973 and their purification in 1974-80, led to the characterization of the biosynthesis, assembly, intracellular transport, and posttranslational processing of the two subunits in the 1980s. The ability to purify milligram quantities of the isozymes made possible the isolation of cDNA clones encoding both subunits in 1985, and ultimately the identification of the causes of Jewish Tay-Sachs disease at the genomic DNA level in 1988. CONCLUSIONS: Tay-Sachs disease is the major model for lysosomal storage diseases. Similarly, the work done in the 1980s on hexosaminidase has been used as a model for understanding the cell biology of many other lysosomal proteins. Current research encompassing the fields of enzymology, cell biology, and molecular biology is linking genotypes with the clinical phenotypes of patients with Tay-Sachs and related diseases.
D J Mahuran
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical biochemistry     Volume:  28     ISSN:  0009-9120     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin. Biochem.     Publication Date:  1995 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-09-05     Completed Date:  1995-09-05     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0133660     Medline TA:  Clin Biochem     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  101-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acid Sequence
Carbohydrate Sequence
Hexosaminidase A
Jews / genetics*
Molecular Sequence Data
Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
Reference Values
Tay-Sachs Disease / enzymology*,  genetics
beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases / biosynthesis*,  genetics
Reg. No./Substance:

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