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Benefits from hazards: Mixture hormesis induced by [emim]Cl despite its individual inhibitions.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25048935     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The threshold model based on monotonic concentration-response curves (CRCs) is unsuitable to assess the risk of chemicals with non-monotonic CRCs. The non-monotonic CRCs of mixtures may relate to the characteristics of some individual component. To reveal the cause of the mixtures resulting in the non-monotonic CRCs, we used the microplate toxicity analysis to determine the toxicity effects of six 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([amim]X) salts and their mixtures on Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Q67). It was shown that the CRCs of six [amim]X salts are monotonic S-shaped while those of the senary mixtures designed by the uniform design ray (UD-ray) are all non-monotonic. The mixtures were further split into two ternary mixtures, one containing 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([emim]X) salts (noted as UTE) and the other one containing 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([bmim]X) salts (noted as UTB). It was found that the CRCs of UTE mixtures are all non-monotonically J-shaped, while only one (UTB-R3) among UTB mixtures has a little stimulating effect and the CRCs of the other three mixtures (UTB-R1, UTB-R2 and UTB-R4) are monotonic. The CRCs of the binary mixtures designed by the direct equipartition ray design (EquRay) procedure were further examined. The CRCs of the mixtures containing [emim]Cl are non-monotonic J-shaped while those of the mixtures without [emim]Cl are still monotonic. Thus, it can conclude that it is [emim]Cl that causes the non-monotonic CRCs in [amim]X mixtures, even though the CRC of individual [emim]Cl is monotonic.
Authors:
Jing Zhang; Shu-Shen Liu; Xiang-Wei Zhu
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-5-29
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemosphere     Volume:  112C     ISSN:  1879-1298     ISO Abbreviation:  Chemosphere     Publication Date:  2014 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-7-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0320657     Medline TA:  Chemosphere     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  420-426     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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