Document Detail

Behavioral interventions reduce infant distress at immunization.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10891025     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple behavioral interventions at immunization on behavioral and biochemical indicators of distress in infants and parents in a primary care setting. DESIGN: Subjects were enrolled sequentially to control (standard care) and intervention groups. Intervention parents (n=57) were provided information about techniques to help their infants at immunization. Standard care parents (n=45) did not receive this information. Immunizations were videotaped and coded for infant and parent behaviors. Using a visual analog scale, parents rated their infant's and their own comfort at study enrollment, immediately after immunization, and at check-out. Saliva samples collected from infants and parents at study enrollment and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after immunization were assayed for cortisol concentration by standard radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed using chi2, analysis of variance, and general linear modeling. Patterns of salivary cortisol change after immunization were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. SETTING: A single, urban pediatric practice during 2 summers (1997 and 1998). SUBJECTS: Infants 2 to 24 months of age (n= 102) and their parents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of infant distress (in seconds); parent use of behavioral intervention; infant and parent salivary cortisol concentrations (in nanomoles per liter). RESULTS: Intervention parents were more likely to use a behavioral technique with their infants before immunization (P<.05). Total infant distress was shorter for intervention infants at immunization (P<.01), and these infants were rated as more comfortable by their parents (P<.001) immediately after immunization. Salivary cortisol levels were lower for intervention infants at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after immunization (P<.05). CONCLUSION: Simple behavioral interventions before immunization are associated with reductions in behavioral and biochemical indicators of infant distress.
B T Felt; E Mollen; S Diaz; E Renaud; M Zeglis; G Wheatcroft; D Mendelow
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine     Volume:  154     ISSN:  1072-4710     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med     Publication Date:  2000 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-08-01     Completed Date:  2000-08-01     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422751     Medline TA:  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  719-24     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0406, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Psychological
Arousal / physiology
Behavior Therapy*
Hydrocortisone / analysis
Parents / education*,  psychology
Saliva / chemistry
Vaccination / psychology*
Reg. No./Substance:

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