Document Detail

Baseline Toxic Mixtures of Non-Toxic Chemicals - Solubility Addition Increases Exposure for Solid Hydrophobic Chemicals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23331084     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
This study addresses the question whether hydrophobic organic chemicals exerting no toxicity at their solubility limit (saturation) can form a toxic mixture. Spiking methods generally do not allow testing exactly at saturation without introducing microcrystals. Passive dosing was thus applied to test the acute toxicity of several high melting point PAHs and their mixtures at the respective saturation levels to aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. With the aquatic Daphnia magna, anthracene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene resulted in no or limited acute toxicity (0-20%), whereas binary and tertiary mixtures of these resulted in significant acute toxicity (70-88%). Toxicity of PAHs and their mixtures could be fitted with one (sum) chemical activity-response curve in accordance with a similar mode of toxic action (i.e., concentration addition). The effective chemical activity (Ea-50) of 0.029 and the effective concentration on a lipid basis (EClipid, eq.-50) of 95.7 mM were well within the range for baseline toxicity. Similar mixtures showed less toxicity to the terrestrial Folsomia candida due to steady-state body-burdens being below equilibrium partitioning levels. The results of the present study raise questions about the focus of risk assessment schemes and toxicity testing guidelines on individual substances, since apparently non-toxic chemicals might become toxic in a mixture.
Kilian E C Smith; Stine Nørgaard Schmidt; Nathalie Dom; Ronny Blust; Martin Holmstrup; Philipp Mayer
Related Documents :
11918274 - Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics.
25438794 - Multitasking antimicrobial peptides in plant development and host defense against bioti...
24121874 - A venturi effect can help cure our trees.
22464284 - Minimising phosphorus losses from the soil matrix.
17882164 - Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain hydrocarbons by marine sulphate-reducing bacteria.
17503584 - The patchiness of epifoliar fungi in tropical forests: host range, host abundance, and ...
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Micropipette tip-based miniaturized electrochemical device combined with ultramicroelectrode and its...
Next Document:  Clinical characteristics of cancer patients referred early to supportive and palliative care.