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Automobile exhaust gas as a source of aqueous phase OH radical in the atmosphere and its effects on physiological status of pine trees.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21767866     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Free radical generation potential of automobile exhaust gas was examined by measuring hydroxyl (OH) radical photo-formation rates in exhaust gas-scrubbing water. Effects of automobile exhausts on physiological status of Japanese red pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) were also investigated to elucidate the mechanism how the free radicals derived from exhaust gas damage higher plants. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases were scrubbed into pure water. Potential photo-formation rates of OH radical in aqueous phase (normalized to sun light intensity of clear sky midday on May 1 at 34°N) for gasoline and diesel cars were ave. 51 and 107μMh(-1)m(-3) of exhaust gas, respectively. Nitrite was a dominant source (ca. 70-90%) of photochemical formation of OH radical in both gasoline and diesel car exhausts. The scrubbed solution of diesel car exhaust gas was sprayed for six times per week to needles of pine tree seedlings in open top chambers. Control, exhaust+mannitol (added as OH radical scavenger), and nitrite+nitrate standard solution (equivalent levels existed in the exhaust gas) were also sprayed. Two months sprays indicated that the sprayed solutions of diesel exhaust and nitrite+nitrate caused a decrease of maximum photosynthetic rate and stomata conductance in pine needles while the control and exhaust+mannitol solution showed no effects on photosynthetic activities of pine needles. These results indicated that OH radicals generated mainly from photolysis of nitrite occurring in the scrubbing solution of exhaust gas are responsible for the decrease of photosynthetic activities of pine needles.
Authors:
Hiroshi Sakugawa; Toshihide Matsuda; Nobutake Nakatani
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-7-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemosphere     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1298     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-7-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0320657     Medline TA:  Chemosphere     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan.
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