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Australian carybdeid jellyfish causing "Irukandji syndrome"
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22361384     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The Australian carybdeid jellyfish associated with Irukandji syndrome is Carukia barnesi, (Barnes' jellyfish). Other Australian carybdeid jellyfish that may be associated with the syndrome include Carukia shinju, Carybdea xaymacana, Malo maxima, Malo kingi, Alatina mordens, Gerongia rifkinae, and Morbakka fenneri ("Morbakka"). These small jellyfish are difficult to capture and identify. They are located offshore of the coasts of Australian states including Queensland, The Northern Territory, Western Australia and South Australia. The syndromic illness, resulting from a characteristic relatively minor sting, develops after about 30 minutes and consists of severe muscle pains especially of the lower back, muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, agitation, vasoconstriction, prostration, hypertension and in cases of severe envenomation, acute heart failure. The mechanisms of actions of their toxins are obscure but they appear to include modulation of neuronal sodium channels leading to massive release of endogenous catecholamines (C. barnesi,A. mordens andM. maxima) and thereby to possible stress-induced cardiomyopathy. In addition, pore formation may occur in myocardial cellular membranes (C. xaymacana). In human cases of severe envenomation, systemic hypertension and myocardial dysfunction are associated with membrane leakage of troponin. Clinical management includes parenteral analgesia, antihypertensive therapy, oxygen and mechanical ventilation. No effective first-aid is known. Large knowledge gaps exist in biology of the jellyfish, their distribution, their toxins and mode of actions and in treatment of the Irukandji syndrome.
James Tibballs; Ran Li; Heath A Tibballs; Lisa-Ann Gershwin; Ken D Winkel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-2-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-3150     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-2-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1307333     Medline TA:  Toxicon     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville 3052, Australia; Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
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