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Auscultatory, echocardiographic, biochemical, nutritional, and environmental characteristics of mitral valve disease in Norfolk terriers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22364691     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVES: In order to more fully understand degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) in the Norfolk terrier, we sought to characterize findings from the physical and echocardiographic examination; biochemical, biomarker, and nutritional profiles; and select environmental variables from a cohort of apparently healthy Norfolk terriers. ANIMALS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overtly healthy Norfolk terriers ≥6 yrs old were recruited by 3 different veterinary hospitals and underwent historical, physical, electrocardiographic (ECG), and 2D/color-flow Doppler echocardiographic examinations. Anterior mitral valve leaflet length, maximal thickness, area, and degree of prolapse were measured or calculated from two-dimensional images. Blood samples were obtained for serum biochemistry, serum serotonin, plasma NT-proBNP, amino acid profile, C-reactive protein, and cardiac troponin I. RESULTS: Of the 48 dogs entered into the study, 23 (48%) had murmurs, 2 (4%) had mid-systolic clicks, 11 (23%) had ECG P pulmonale, and 41 (85%) were deemed to have echocardiographic evidence of DMVD, including 18 Norfolk terriers without a murmur. Seven (15%), 28 (58%), and 13 (27%) dogs were classified as normal (stage 0), International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) stage 1a, and 1b, respectively. Mean indexed echocardiographic mitral leaflet thickness (P = 0.017), area (P = 0.0002), prolapse (P = 0.0004), and left atrial to aortic diameter (P = 0.01) were significantly different between ISACHC 0, 1a, and 1b. CONCLUSION: DMVD is relatively common in Norfolk terriers and echocardiographic changes consistent with mild DMVD can be seen in dogs without a heart murmur.
Dennis J Trafny; Lisa M Freeman; Barret J Bulmer; John M Macgregor; John E Rush; Kathryn M Meurs; Mark A Oyama
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-2-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of veterinary cardiology : the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1875-0834     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-2-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101163270     Medline TA:  J Vet Cardiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
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