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Asymmetric Functional Divergence of Young, Dispersed Gene Duplicates in Arabidopsis thaliana.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23344714     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
One prediction of the classic Ohno model of gene duplication predicts that new genes form from the asymmetric functional divergence of a newly arisen, redundant duplicate locus. In order to understand the mechanisms which give rise to functional divergence of newly formed dispersed duplicates, we assessed the expression and molecular evolutionary divergence of a suite of 19 highly similar dispersed duplicates in Arabidopsis thaliana. These duplicates have a K (sil) equal to or less than 5 % and are specific to the A. thaliana lineage; thus, they predictably represent some of the youngest duplicates in the A. thaliana genome. We found that the majority of young duplicate loci exhibit asymmetric expression patterns, with the daughter locus exhibiting reduced expression across all tissues analyzed relative to the progenitor locus or simply not expressed. Furthermore, daughter loci, on the whole, have significantly more nonsynonymous substitutions than the progenitor loci. We also identified four pairs of loci which exhibit significant (P < 0.05) evolutionary rate asymmetry, three of which exhibit elevated dN/dS in the duplicate copy. We suggest, based on these data, that functional diversification initially takes the form of asymmetric regulatory divergence that can be a direct consequence of the mode of duplication. The reduced and/or absence of expression in the daughter copy relaxes functional constraint on its protein coding sequence leading to the asymmetric accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations. Thus, our data both affirm Ohno's prediction while explaining the mechanism by which functional divergence initially occurs following duplication for dispersed gene duplicates.
Authors:
Sarah M Owens; Nicholas A Harberson; Richard C Moore
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of molecular evolution     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1432-1432     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Mol. Evol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0360051     Medline TA:  J Mol Evol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Botany Department, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA.
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