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Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma : optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18576089     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni2 (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. Since the synthesized astaxanthin is associated with the yeast cell and the pigment requires facilitated release for aquaculture uses (farmed fish meat staining), an investigation of the yeast cell wall was undertaken using detergent-treated cells. The composition of the rigid yeast envelope was found to be heterogeneous. Its partial acid or enzymatic depolymerization revealed glucose and xylose as common monomeric units of the cell-wall glycopolymers. Yeast cell-wall partial depolymerization with appropriate hydrolases may improve the pigment bioavailability for captive aquatic species and poultry.
J D Fontana; M B Chocial; M Baron; M F Guimaraes; M Maraschin; C Ulhoa; J A Florêncio; T M Bonfim
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Applied biochemistry and biotechnology     Volume:  63-65     ISSN:  0273-2289     ISO Abbreviation:  Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.     Publication Date:  1997  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-06-25     Completed Date:  2008-09-08     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8208561     Medline TA:  Appl Biochem Biotechnol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  305-14     Citation Subset:  -    
LQBB-Biomass Chemo Biotechnology Laboratory/Biochemistry/UFPR, P.O. Box 19046 (81531-990), Curitiba-PR, Brazil.
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