Document Detail

Association of intrapartum antibiotic exposure and late-onset serious bacterial infections in infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16140710     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Recommendations to prevent vertical transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections have resulted in many women's receiving antibiotics during labor with an associated reduction in early-onset GBS infections in their newborn infants. However, a potential relationship of intrapartum antibiotics (IPA) to the occurrence of late-onset (7-90 days) serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in term infants has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to determine whether infants with late-onset SBI were more likely than healthy control infants to have been exposed to IPA and whether there was a greater likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that were isolated from infants who had an SBI and had been exposed to IPA compared with those who had not. METHODS: We used a case-control design to study the first objective. Cases were previously healthy full-term infants who were hospitalized for late-onset SBI between the ages of 7 and 90 days. Control subjects were healthy full-term infants who were known not to have an SBI in their first 90 days. Cases and control subjects were matched for hospital of delivery. In the second part of the study, rates of antibiotic resistance of bacteria that were isolated from infected infants were compared for those who had and had not been exposed to IPA. RESULTS: Ninety case infants and 92 control subjects were studied. Considering all types of IPA, more case (41%) than control infants (27%) had been exposed to IPA (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.66), after controlling for hospital of delivery. The association was stronger when IPA was with broad-spectrum antibiotics (adjusted OR: 4.95; 95% CI: 2.04-11.98), after controlling for hospital of delivery, penicillin IPA, maternal chorioamnionitis, and breastfeeding. Bacteria that were isolated from infected infants who had been exposed to IPA were more likely to exhibit ampicillin resistance (adjusted OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 2.3-14.3), after controlling for hospital of delivery, but not to other antibiotics that are commonly used to treat SBI in infants. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for potential confounders, infants with late-onset SBI were more likely to have been exposed to IPA than noninfected control infants. Pathogens that cause late-onset SBI were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin when the infant had been exposed to intrapartum antibiotics.
Tiffany S Glasgow; Paul C Young; Jordan Wallin; Carolyn Kwok; Greg Stoddard; Sean Firth; Matthew Samore; Carrie L Byington
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatrics     Volume:  116     ISSN:  1098-4275     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatrics     Publication Date:  2005 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-09-05     Completed Date:  2005-12-13     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376422     Medline TA:  Pediatrics     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  696-702     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of General Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Ampicillin Resistance
Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage*
Antibiotic Prophylaxis*
Bacterial Infections / etiology,  microbiology,  prevention & control*
Case-Control Studies
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control*
Labor, Obstetric*
Streptococcal Infections / prevention & control
Streptococcus agalactiae
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0/Penicillins; 69-53-4/Ampicillin
Comment In:
Pediatrics. 2006 Jan;117(1):255-6; author reply 256-7   [PMID:  16396894 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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