Document Detail


Assessing occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in dry cleaning.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17086665     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning is analyzed by calculating airborne concentrations for a large set of possible exposure scenarios. Different generations of dry-cleaning machines ranging from vented machines used until the 1980s to nonvented closed-loop machines used since the 1990s are investigated; the geographical scope of the study is Germany. Concentrations are calculated for diffuse emissions, release of contaminated air during loading and unloading, and residual solvent releases from cleaned garments with a dynamic two-box model for near field and far field. The concentration estimates for near field and far field agree well with measured concentrations. The airborne concentrations are compared with maximum workplace concentrations (MAK values). The full set of scenarios shows for which historical situations the workplace concentrations were near the MAK value and that the transition to newer dry-cleaning machines reduced the occupational exposure by more than one order of magnitude. In addition, numbers of exposed workers are estimated for different years. Whereas more than 25,700 workers in the near field were exposed to PERC in 1975, the number has been below 5900 since 2001, which is due mainly to a reduced amount of garments being dry cleaned and, to a lesser extent, to replacement of PERC by nonchlorinated solvents. The results from the scenario-based analysis are consistent with exposure ranges obtained from a Monte Carlo calculation using frequency distributions of key input parameters, such as emission factors, batch times, and room volumes.
Authors:
Julia von Grote; Christian Hürlimann; Martin Scheringer; Konrad Hungerbühler
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene     Volume:  3     ISSN:  1545-9624     ISO Abbreviation:  J Occup Environ Hyg     Publication Date:  2006 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-11-06     Completed Date:  2007-02-01     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101189458     Medline TA:  J Occup Environ Hyg     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  606-19     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis*
Environmental Monitoring
Germany
Humans
Models, Theoretical*
Occupational Exposure / analysis*,  prevention & control
Questionnaires
Risk Assessment
Solvents / analysis*
Tetrachloroethylene / analysis*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Solvents; 127-18-4/Tetrachloroethylene

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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