Document Detail

Assessing nanotoxicity in cells in vitro.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20063369     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Nanomaterials are commonly defined as particles or fibers of less than 1 microm in diameter. For these reasons, they may be respirable in humans and have the potential, based upon their geometry, composition, size, and transport or durability in the body, to cause adverse effects on human health, especially if they are inhaled at high concentrations. Rodent inhalation models to predict the toxicity and pathogenicity of nanomaterials are prohibitive in terms of time and expense. For these reasons, a panel of in vitro assays is described below. These include cell culture assays for cytotoxicity (altered metabolism, decreased growth, lytic or apoptotic cell death), proliferation, genotoxicity, and altered gene expression. The choice of cell type for these assays may be dictated by the procedure or endpoint selected. Most of these assays have been standardized in our laboratory using pathogenic minerals (asbestos and silica) and non-pathogenic particles (fine titanium dioxide or glass beads) as negative controls. The results of these in vitro assays should predict whether testing of selected nanomaterials should be pursued in animal inhalation models that simulate physiologic exposure to inhaled nanomaterials. Conversely, intrathoracic or intrapleural injection of nanomaterials into rodents can be misleading because they bypass normal clearance mechanisms, and non-pathogenic fibers and particles can test positively in these assays.
Jedd M Hillegass; Arti Shukla; Sherrill A Lathrop; Maximilian B MacPherson; Naomi K Fukagawa; Brooke T Mossman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology     Volume:  2     ISSN:  1939-0041     ISO Abbreviation:  Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol     Publication Date:    2010 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-14     Completed Date:  2010-07-13     Revised Date:  2014-09-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101508311     Medline TA:  Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  219-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Cell Proliferation / drug effects
Cells, Cultured
Gene Expression / drug effects
Mutagenicity Tests
Nanostructures / toxicity*
Toxicity Tests / methods
Grant Support

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