Document Detail

Aspects of long-chain acyl-COA metabolism.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1134497     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
1. Long-chain acid: CoA ligase (AMP-forming) (trivial name acyl-CoA synthetase; EC is located at the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the outer membrane of the mitochondria. The latter membrane has by far the highest specific activity. 2. GTP-dependent synthesis of acyl-CoA has a very low activity in liver mitochondria (about 5% of the activity measured with ATP). CTP, ITP, UTP and GTP may all provide energy for fatty acid activation in sonicated mitochondria by formation of ATP from endogenous ADP and AMP. 3. In rat liver palmitoyl-CoA: L-carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (trivial name carnitine palmitoyltransferase; EC is located at the microsomal membranes and in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Its activity is increased, in both membranes, during fasting and in thyroxine-treated rats. The extramitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase may capture part of the acyl CoA formed at the endoplasmic reticulum as acyl-carnitine, especially during fasting and other metabolic conditions of high fatty acid turnover. This transport form of activated fatty acid can penetrate the inner mitochondrial membrane (the acyl-CoA barrier) where it can be reconverted to acyl-CoA, providing the substrate for beta-oxidation in the inner membrane-matrix compartment. The small part of the mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase, described to be present at the external surface of the mitochondrial inner membrane, may have the same function in the transport of acyl-CoA formed at the mitochondrial outer membrane. 4. Isolated rat liver mitochondria can oxidize high concentrations of palmitate or oleate in the absence of carnitine. In this case the fatty acids are activated in the inner membrane-matrix compartment of the mitochondria, probably by a medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase with wide substrate specificity. Because this enzyme is less active in heart and absent in skeletal muscle, these tissues oxidize long-chain fatty acids in an obligatory carnitine-dependent fashion. Also the liver oxidizes long-chain fatty acids in a carnitine-dependent way if lower fatty acid concentrations are used. In this tissue carnitine stimulates specifically the partial oxidation of fatty acids to beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. 5. The activities of acyl-CoA: sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (trivial name glycerophosphate acyltransferase; EC and carnitine palmitoyltransferase change in opposite directions during fasting. These activity changes, together with the measured kinetic properties of the enzymes in mitochondria and microsomes, allow a switch (relatively) from lipid synthesis to ketogenesis during fasting. This switch may occur at the level of long-chain acyl-CoA both in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the mitochondria.
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecular and cellular biochemistry     Volume:  7     ISSN:  0300-8177     ISO Abbreviation:  Mol. Cell. Biochem.     Publication Date:  1975 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1975-08-26     Completed Date:  1975-08-26     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0364456     Medline TA:  Mol Cell Biochem     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  19-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Acyltransferases / metabolism*
Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
Carnitine / pharmacology
Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase / metabolism*
Coenzyme A / metabolism*
Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism*
Fatty Acids / metabolism*
Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase / metabolism
Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism
Membranes / enzymology
Microsomes / enzymology
Mitochondria, Liver / drug effects,  enzymology
Thyroxine / pharmacology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fatty Acids; 541-15-1/Carnitine; 56-65-5/Adenosine Triphosphate; 7488-70-2/Thyroxine; 85-61-0/Coenzyme A; 86-01-1/Guanosine Triphosphate; EC 2.3.-/Acyltransferases; EC O-Acyltransferase; EC O-Palmitoyltransferase; EC 6.2.1.-/Coenzyme A Ligases

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