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Arterial Stress Hormones during Scuba Diving With Different Breathing Gases.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22217569     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine if the conditions during scuba diving without exercise (e.g. submersion, restricted breathing) stimulate the activities of the sympathoadrenergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This might facilitate panic reactions in dangerous situations. METHODS: 15 experienced rescue divers participated in 3 experiments with 2 submersions each in a diving tower where ambient pressure could be varied. During submersion (duration 15 min) they were breathing either pure oxygen (ambient pressure 1.1 bar) or air (1.1 and 5.3 bar) or Heliox21 (21% O2, 79% He, 1.1 and 5.3 bar). The subjects stayed upright immediately below the water surface holding one hand with a cannulated radial artery out in the air. Noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine concentrations in arterial blood and heart rate variability as indicators of sympathoadrenergic activity, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations as strain indicators were measured. RESULTS: [noradrenaline] and [adrenaline] (initial values 1616 ± 93 SE pmol·L and 426 ± 38 pmol·L) decreased significantly by up to 30 and 50 %, respectively, after 11 min of submersion, independent of pressure and inspired gas. Heart rate variability showed roughly corresponding changes and also indications for parasympathetic stimulation but artifacts by interference among heart rate monitors reduced the number of usable measurements. The other hormone concentrations did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: There was no increase of stress hormone concentrations in experienced subjects. The reduction of [noradrenaline] and [adrenaline] during scuba diving seems to be a reaction to orthostatic relief caused by external hydrostatic pressure on peripheral vasculature. The activity of the vegetative nervous system might be estimated from heart rate variability if interference among pulse watches can be avoided.
Authors:
Frank Weist; Gunther Strobel; Mathias Holzl; Dieter Boning
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-3
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and science in sports and exercise     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1530-0315     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-5     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005433     Medline TA:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
1Institute of Sports Medicine, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Trauma Hospital Berlin, Germany.
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