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Arginine and citrulline supplementation in sports and exercise: ergogenic nutrients?.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23075551     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Dietary L-citrulline malate supplements may increase levels of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, although this response has not been related to an improvement in athletic performance. NO plays an important role in many functions in the body regulating vasodilatation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration and platelet function. L-Arginine is the main precursor of NO via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Additionally, L-citrulline has been indicated to be a second NO donor in the NOS-dependent pathway, since it can be converted to L-arginine. The importance of L-citrulline as an ergogenic support derives from the fact that L-citrulline is not subject to pre-systemic elimination and, consequently, could be a more efficient way to elevate extracellular levels of L-arginine by itself. L-Citrulline malate can develop beneficial effects on the elimination of NH(3) in the course of recovery from exhaustive muscular exercise and also as an effective precursor of L-arginine and creatine. Dietary supplementation with L-citrulline alone does not improve exercise performance. The ergogenic response of L-citrulline or L-arginine supplements depends on the training status of the subjects. Studies involving untrained or moderately healthy subjects showed that NO donors could improve tolerance to aerobic and anaerobic exercise. However, when highly-trained subjects were supplemented, no positive effect on performance was indicated.
Authors:
Antoni Sureda; Antoni Pons
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-10-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and sport science     Volume:  59     ISSN:  1662-2812     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Sport Sci     Publication Date:  2013  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8402440     Medline TA:  Med Sport Sci     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  18-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Physical Activity Science, Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Department of Biologia Fonamental i Ciències de la Salut, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain.
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