Document Detail

Archaeopteryx feathers and bone chemistry fully revealed via synchrotron imaging.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20457935     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Evolution of flight in maniraptoran dinosaurs is marked by the acquisition of distinct avian characters, such as feathers, as seen in Archaeopteryx from the Solnhofen limestone. These rare fossils were pivotal in confirming the dinosauria-avian lineage. One of the key derived avian characters is the possession of feathers, details of which were remarkably preserved in the Lagerstätte environment. These structures were previously simply assumed to be impressions; however, a detailed chemical analysis has, until now, never been completed on any Archaeopteryx specimen. Here we present chemical imaging via synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) of the Thermopolis Archaeopteryx, which shows that portions of the feathers are not impressions but are in fact remnant body fossil structures, maintaining elemental compositions that are completely different from the embedding geological matrix. Our results indicate phosphorous and sulfur retention in soft tissue as well as trace metal (Zn and Cu) retention in bone. Other previously unknown chemical details of Archaeopteryx are also revealed in this study including: bone chemistry, taphonomy (fossilization process), and curation artifacts. SRS-XRF represents a major advancement in the study of the life chemistry and fossilization processes of Archaeopteryx and other extinct organisms because it is now practical to image the chemistry of large specimens rapidly at concentration levels of parts per million. This technique has wider application to the archaeological, forensic, and biological sciences, enabling the mapping of "unseen" compounds critical to understanding biological structures, modes of preservation, and environmental context.
U Bergmann; R W Morton; P L Manning; W I Sellers; S Farrar; K G Huntley; R A Wogelius; P Larson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-05-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  107     ISSN:  1091-6490     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2010 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-20     Completed Date:  2010-07-22     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  9060-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Birds / anatomy & histology*
Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology,  chemistry*
Feathers / anatomy & histology,  chemistry*
Metals, Heavy / analysis
Phosphorus / analysis
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission / methods*
Sulfur / analysis
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Metals, Heavy; 7704-34-9/Sulfur; 7723-14-0/Phosphorus

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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