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Arabidopsis mutants of sphingolipid fatty acid α-hydroxylases accumulate ceramides and salicylates.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23025549     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In Arabidopsis, the fatty acid moiety of sphingolipids is mainly α-hydroxylated. The consequences of a reduction in this modification were analysed. Mutants of both Fatty Acid Hydroxylase genes (AtFAH1 and AtFAH2) were analysed for sphingolipid profiles. To elucidate further consequences of the mutations, metabolic analyses were performed and the influence on pathogen defence was determined. Ceramide and glucosylceramide profiles of double-mutant plants showed a reduction in sphingolipids with α-hydroxylated fatty acid moieties, and an accumulation of sphingolipids without these moieties. In addition, the free trihydroxylated long-chain bases and ceramides were increased by five- and ten-fold, respectively, whereas the amount of glucosylceramides was decreased by 25%. Metabolite analysis of the double mutant revealed salicylates as enriched metabolites. Infection experiments supported the metabolic changes, as the double mutant showed an enhanced disease-resistant phenotype for infection with the obligate biotrophic pathogen Golovinomyces cichoracearum. In summary, these results suggest that fatty acid hydroxylation of ceramides is important for the biosynthesis of complex sphingolipids. Its absence leads to the accumulation of long-chain bases and ceramides as their precursors. This increases salicylate levels and resistance towards obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens, confirming a role of sphingolipids in salicylic acid-dependent defence reactions.
Authors:
Stefanie König; Kirstin Feussner; Marnie Schwarz; Alexander Kaever; Tim Iven; Manuel Landesfeind; Philipp Ternes; Petr Karlovsky; Volker Lipka; Ivo Feussner
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  The New phytologist     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-8137     ISO Abbreviation:  New Phytol.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9882884     Medline TA:  New Phytol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Biochemistry, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, Georg-August-University, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.
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