Document Detail

Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of advanced cationic surfactant APA-22 compatible with the aquatic environment.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18781053     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl chain length is effective to reduce the toxicity. Besides, we have recognized that the amidopropyl functional group contributes to the enhanced biodegradability by investigating the biodegradation trend of (alkylamidopropyl)dimethylamine salt (alkyl chain length: C18). Based on these findings, we have developed mono alkyl cationic surfactant called APA-22, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide salt. APA-22 is formed by the C22 alkyl chain, amidopropyl functional group and di-methyltertiary amine group. We evaluated the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of APA-22 by two standard methods (OECD Test Guideline 301B and ECETOC technical document No.28) and found that this substance was degraded rapidly in both conditions. The toxicity to algae, invertebrate and fish of this substance are evaluated by using OECD Test Guideline 201, 202 and 203, respectively. All acute toxicity values are >1 mg/L, which indicates that environmental toxicity of this substance is relatively less toxic to aquatic organism. In addition, we estimated the biodegradation pathway of APA-22 and observed the complete disappearance of APA-22 and its intermediates during the test periods. Based on the environmental data provided above, we concluded that APA22 is more compatible with the aquatic environment compared to other cationic surfactants with mono long alkyl chain.
Masayuki Yamane; Takamasa Toyo; Katsuhisa Inoue; Takaya Sakai; Youhei Kaneko; Naohiro Nishiyama
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of oleo science     Volume:  57     ISSN:  1347-3352     ISO Abbreviation:  J Oleo Sci     Publication Date:  2008  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-09-10     Completed Date:  2008-12-16     Revised Date:  2009-08-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101175339     Medline TA:  J Oleo Sci     Country:  Japan    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  529-38     Citation Subset:  IM    
Safety Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tochigi, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Acute Toxicity Tests
Algae / drug effects
Amides / metabolism*,  toxicity*
Biodegradation, Environmental
Cations / chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity
Daphnia / drug effects
Hair Preparations / chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity
Molecular Structure
Surface-Active Agents / chemistry,  metabolism*,  toxicity*
Water / chemistry
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amides; 0/Cations; 0/Hair Preparations; 0/N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)docosanamide; 0/Surface-Active Agents; 7732-18-5/Water

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