Document Detail

Applying nutrition and physiology to improve reproduction in dairy cattle.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21755686     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production traits.
J E P Santos; R S Bisinotto; E S Ribeiro; F S Lima; L F Greco; C R Staples; W W Thatcher
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement     Volume:  67     ISSN:  1747-3403     ISO Abbreviation:  Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl     Publication Date:  2010  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-07-15     Completed Date:  2011-08-18     Revised Date:  2014-06-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101295315     Medline TA:  Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  387-403     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Cattle Diseases / economics,  etiology,  prevention & control*
Dairying / economics*
Dietary Supplements
Infertility, Female / etiology,  prevention & control,  veterinary
Insemination, Artificial / veterinary
Lactation / physiology
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
Reproduction / physiology*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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