Document Detail


Application technique and slurry co-fermentation effects on ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions after spreading: I. Ammonia volatilization.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12469827     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Ammonia emissions after spreading animal manure contribute a major share to N losses from agriculture. There is an increasing interest in anaerobic co-digestion of liquid manure with organic additives. This fermentation results in a change of physical and chemical parameters of the slurry. Among these are an increased pH and ammonium content, implying a higher risk of NH3 losses from fermentation products. To compare different application techniques and the effect of fermentation on NH3 volatilization, we used the standard comparison method and tested it for reliability. This method seems to be perfectly suited for experiments with a large number of treatments and replicates if prerequisites concerning the experimental layout are considered. We tested four different application techniques on arable and grassland sites. The more the substrate was incorporated into the soil or applied near the soil surface on the grassland site, the less NH3 was lost. Injection of the substrate reduced losses to less than 10% of applied NH4+ on both sites, whereas losses after splash plate application amounted to more than 30%. Trail shoe application on grassland performed as well as injection. Harrowing on arable land also reduced emissions efficiently, if harrowing occurred within the first 2 h after application. Emissions from trail hose-applied co-fermentation product were not greater than from unfermented slurry. Better infiltration of the less viscous substrate seemed to have compensated for the increased loss potential.
Authors:
S Wulf; M Maeting; J Clemens
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of environmental quality     Volume:  31     ISSN:  0047-2425     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Environ. Qual.     Publication Date:    2002 Nov-Dec
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-12-09     Completed Date:  2003-03-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330666     Medline TA:  J Environ Qual     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1789-94     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany. se.wulf@uni-bonn.de
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Ammonia / chemistry*
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environmental Monitoring
Fermentation
Fertilizers
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Manure
Methane / analysis*
Nitrous Oxide / analysis*
Soil Pollutants / analysis*
Volatilization
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fertilizers; 0/Manure; 0/Soil Pollutants; 10024-97-2/Nitrous Oxide; 74-82-8/Methane; 7664-41-7/Ammonia

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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