Document Detail

Application of pharmacokinetic data to the risk assessment of inhaled manganese.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16644014     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
There is increased interest within the scientific community concerning the neurotoxicity of manganese owing in part to the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as a gasoline fuel additive and an enhanced awareness that this essential metal may play a role in hepatic encephalopathy and other neurologic diseases. Neurotoxicity generally arises over a prolonged period of time and results when manganese intake exceeds its elimination leading to increases in brain manganese concentration. Neurotoxicity can occur following high dose oral, inhalation, or parenteral exposure or when hepatobiliary clearance of this metal is impaired. Studies completed during the past several years have substantially improved our understanding of the health risks posed by inhaled manganese by determining exposure conditions that lead to increased concentrations of manganese within the central nervous system and other target organs. Many of these studies focused on phosphates, sulfates, and oxides of manganese since these are formed and emitted following MMT combustion by an automobile. These studies have evaluated the role of direct nose-to-brain transport of inhaled manganese and have examined differences in manganese toxicokinetics in potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetuses, neonates, individuals with compromised hepatic function or sub-optimal manganese intake, and the aged). This manuscript reviews the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's current risk assessment for inhaled manganese, summarizes these contemporary pharmacokinetic studies, and considers how these data could inform future risk assessments of this metal following inhalation.
David C Dorman; Melanie F Struve; Harvey J Clewell; Melvin E Andersen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2006-03-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurotoxicology     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0161-813X     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurotoxicology     Publication Date:  2006 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-08-21     Completed Date:  2006-10-31     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7905589     Medline TA:  Neurotoxicology     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  752-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
CIIT Centers for Health Research (CIIT), 6 Davis Drive, P.O. Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2137, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Inhalation Exposure* / statistics & numerical data
Manganese / pharmacokinetics*
Manganese Poisoning / diagnosis,  epidemiology,  metabolism*
Risk Assessment*
United States
United States Environmental Protection Agency / standards
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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