Document Detail

Appetite control and reproduction: leptin and beyond.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12536362     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
It is now recognized that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake, and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neurocircuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of undernourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down-regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits coordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotropin-releasing hormone release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4% of the morbidly obese, and in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agouti-related peptide gene (AgRP), which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake, and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans, although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported.
C J Small; S A Stanley; S R Bloom
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Seminars in reproductive medicine     Volume:  20     ISSN:  1526-8004     ISO Abbreviation:  Semin. Reprod. Med.     Publication Date:  2002 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-01-21     Completed Date:  2003-06-13     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100909394     Medline TA:  Semin Reprod Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  389-98     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Metabolic Medicine, Division of Investigative Science, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Agouti-Related Protein
Appetite Regulation / physiology*
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Leptin / physiology*
Peptide Hormones / physiology
Proteins / physiology
Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4
Receptors, Corticotropin / physiology
Receptors, Leptin
Reproduction / physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Agouti-Related Protein; 0/Ghrelin; 0/Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Leptin; 0/Peptide Hormones; 0/Proteins; 0/Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4; 0/Receptors, Corticotropin; 0/Receptors, Leptin; 0/leptin receptor, human

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Thyroid dysfunction: reproduction and postpartum thyroiditis.
Next Document:  White matter disease in cerebral organic acid disorders: clinical implications and suggested pathome...