Document Detail

Apocynin increases glutathione synthesis and activates AP-1 in alveolar epithelial cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9989612     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone) is a potent intracellular inhibitor of superoxide anion production in neutrophils. In this study, we studied the effect of apocynin on the regulation of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and activation of the transcription factor AP-I in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Apocynin enhanced intracellular GSH by increasing gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity in A549 cells. Apocynin also increased the expression of gamma-GCS heavy subunit mRNA. This was associated with increased AP-1 DNA binding as measured by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These data indicate that apocynin displays antioxidant properties, in part, by increasing glutathione synthesis through activation of AP-1.
T S Lapperre; L A Jimenez; F Antonicelli; E M Drost; P S Hiemstra; J Stolk; W MacNee; I Rahman
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  FEBS letters     Volume:  443     ISSN:  0014-5793     ISO Abbreviation:  FEBS Lett.     Publication Date:  1999 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-03-02     Completed Date:  1999-03-02     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0155157     Medline TA:  FEBS Lett     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  235-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Acetophenones / pharmacology*
Antioxidants / pharmacology*
Base Sequence
Cell Line
DNA / metabolism
DNA Primers
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase / genetics,  metabolism
Glutathione / biosynthesis*
Protein Binding
Pulmonary Alveoli / drug effects*,  enzymology,  metabolism
RNA, Messenger / genetics,  metabolism
Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Acetophenones; 0/Antioxidants; 0/DNA Primers; 0/RNA, Messenger; 0/Transcription Factor AP-1; 498-02-2/acetovanillone; 70-18-8/Glutathione; 9007-49-2/DNA; EC Ligase

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