Document Detail

Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22155833     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection.
Carol L Fischer; David R Drake; Deborah V Dawson; Derek R Blanchette; Kim A Brogden; Philip W Wertz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2011-12-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy     Volume:  56     ISSN:  1098-6596     ISO Abbreviation:  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-02-16     Completed Date:  2012-08-24     Revised Date:  2014-09-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0315061     Medline TA:  Antimicrob Agents Chemother     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1157-61     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Anti-Bacterial Agents / immunology,  pharmacology*
Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*,  growth & development
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / immunology,  prevention & control
Gram-Positive Bacteria / drug effects*,  growth & development
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / immunology,  prevention & control
Immunity, Innate*
Lauric Acids / immunology,  metabolism,  pharmacology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Mouth / immunology*,  microbiology
Palmitic Acids / immunology,  metabolism,  pharmacology
Skin / immunology*,  microbiology
Species Specificity
Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives,  immunology,  pharmacology,  secretion
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0/Lauric Acids; 0/Palmitic Acids; 1160N9NU9U/lauric acid; 554-62-1/phytosphingosine; 6460S1EJ28/hexadecenoic acid; 764-22-7/safingol; NGZ37HRE42/Sphingosine

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