Document Detail


Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy of Dexamethasone and Nrf2 Activators in the CNS Using Brain Slices as a Model of Acute Injury.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22249489     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Limiting excessive production of inflammatory mediators is an effective therapeutic strategy for many diseases. It's also a promising remedy for neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Glucocorticoids are valuable anti-inflammatory agents, but their use is constrained by adverse side-effects. Activators of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling represent an attractive anti-inflammatory alternative. In this study, dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, and several molecular activators of Nrf2 were evaluated for efficacy in slices of cerebral cortex derived from adult SJL/J mice. Cortical explants increased expression of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs in culture within 5 h of sectioning. This expression was inhibited with dexamethasone in the explant medium or injected systemically in mice before sectioning. Semi-synthetic triterpenoid (SST) derivatives, potent activators of the Nrf2 pathway, demonstrated fast-acting anti-inflammatory activity in microglia cultures, but not in the cortical slice system. Quercetin, luteolin, and dimethyl fumarate were also evaluated as molecular activators of Nrf2. While expression of inflammatory mediators in microglia cultures was inhibited, these compounds did not demonstrate anti-inflammatory efficacy in cortical slices. In conclusion, brain slices were amenable to pharmacological modification as demonstrated by anti-inflammatory activity with dexamethasone. The utilization of Nrf2 activators to limit inflammatory mediators within the CNS requires further investigation. Inactivity in CNS tissue, however, suggests their safe use without neurological side-effects in treating non-CNS disorders. Short-term CNS explants may provide a more accurate model of in vivo conditions than microglia cultures since the complex tissue microenvironment is maintained.
Authors:
David J Graber; William F Hickey; Elijah W Stommel; Brent T Harris
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1557-1904     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-17     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101256586     Medline TA:  J Neuroimmune Pharmacol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, 03756, USA, David.J.Graber@Dartmouth.Edu.
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