Document Detail

Anthropometric and strength variables to predict freestyle performance times in elite master swimmers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18545175     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The aims of this study were to determine in elite master swimmers of both genders whether, using anthropometric variables and the hand grip strength measure, it was possible to predict freestyle performance time, whether the considered predictors were related similarly to different events (50, 100, 200, 400, 800 m), and whether they were the same in male and female master swimmers. The relationships between performance times and age, body mass, height, arm length, forearm length, forearm muscle volume, and hand grip strength were examined in 135 elite master swimmers. Pearson's simple correlation coefficients were calculated and then prediction equations were developed. Age, height, and hand grip strength were the best predictors in short-distance events, whereas only age and height were predictors in middle- and long-distance events. The corresponding coefficient of determination (R) of performance times were 0.84 in the 50-m event, 0.73 in the 100-m event, 0.75 in the 200-m event, 0.66 in the 400-m event, and 0.63 in the 800-m event. These regression equations were then cross-validated in a control group of 126 nonelite, age-matched swimmers, obtaining significant and good correlations for all distances (range, r = 0.67 and 0.83; p < 0.01), indicating that predictors are valid in an extended sample of master swimmers. Differences between sexes were not found in 50-m event, but were present in all other events. These models might be useful to determine individual performance times by contributing to improving the individual's training program and the selection of master swimmers. Coaches could have better accuracy in determining whether an athlete needs a strength training program in order to optimize performance time.
Maria L Zampagni; Daniela Casino; Piero Benelli; Andrea Visani; Maurilio Marcacci; Giuseppe De Vito
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association     Volume:  22     ISSN:  1533-4287     ISO Abbreviation:  J Strength Cond Res     Publication Date:  2008 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-10     Completed Date:  2008-09-10     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9415084     Medline TA:  J Strength Cond Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1298-307     Citation Subset:  IM    
Biomechanics Laboratory, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Aged, 80 and over
Athletic Performance / physiology*
Body Height / physiology
Case-Control Studies
Forearm / anatomy & histology
Hand Strength / physiology
Middle Aged
Muscle Strength / physiology*
Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology
Sex Factors
Swimming / physiology*

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