Document Detail

Androgens and masculinization of genitalia in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta). 2. Effects of prenatal anti-androgens.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9713384     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Pregnant spotted hyaenas were treated with anti-androgens to interfere with the unusually masculine 'phallic' development that characterizes females of this species. The effects on genital morphology and plasma androgen concentrations of infants were studied during the first 6 months of life. Although there were consistent 'feminizing' effects of prenatal anti-androgen treatment on genital morphology in both sexes, such exposure did not produce males with extreme hypospadia, as it does in other species, nor did it produce females with a 'typical' mammalian clitoris and external vagina. 'Feminization' of males resulted in a penis with the morphological features of the hyaena clitoris, and 'feminization' of females exaggerated the sex differences that are typical of this species. The effects of treatment were present at birth and persisted for at least 6 months. Treatment of pregnant females with flutamide and finasteride also markedly reduced circulating concentrations of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in maternal plasma during pregnancy. Plasma delta 4-androstenedione was reduced in the female, but not the male, infants of treated mothers, consistent with an epigenetic hypothesis previously advanced to explain hormonal 'masculinization' of females. The present 'feminizing' effects of prenatal anti-androgen treatment are consistent with contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation, which accounts for morphological variation between the sexes in terms of steroids. However, current theory does not account for the basic genital structure of females and the present data suggest that development of the male penis and scrotum, and the female clitoris and pseudoscrotum, in spotted hyaenas may involve both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent components.
C M Drea; M L Weldele; N G Forger; E M Coscia; L G Frank; P Licht; S E Glickman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of reproduction and fertility     Volume:  113     ISSN:  0022-4251     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Reprod. Fertil.     Publication Date:  1998 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-09-01     Completed Date:  1998-09-01     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376367     Medline TA:  J Reprod Fertil     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  117-27     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology*
Androstenedione / blood
Carnivora / embryology*
Cyproterone Acetate / pharmacology
Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
Finasteride / pharmacology
Flutamide / pharmacology
Genitalia / drug effects,  embryology,  growth & development
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Sex Differentiation / drug effects*
Testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase / antagonists & inhibitors
Urogenital System / drug effects,  embryology*,  growth & development
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Androgen Antagonists; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 13311-84-7/Flutamide; 427-51-0/Cyproterone Acetate; 63-05-8/Androstenedione; 98319-26-7/Finasteride; EC 5-alpha-Reductase

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