Document Detail

Analysis for threshold levels of cadmium in urine that induce tubular dysfunction among women in non-polluted areas in Japan.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12690494     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To examine if there is a threshold in urinary cadmium concentration that induces elevation in urinary microglobulins. METHODS: The database developed in a previous field survey (Ezaki et al. 2002) was employed. In the survey conducted in 2000 and 2001, more than 10,000 middle-aged women (with no occupational exposure to Cd) in ten prefectures all over Japan gave morning spot urine samples, which were analyzed for cadmium (Cd-U), calcium (Ca-U), magnesium (Mg-U), zinc (Zn-U), alpha(1)- and beta(2)-microglobulins (alpha(1)- and beta(2)-MG-U), and creatinine (cr). The urinary analyte concentrations were corrected for cr concentration (to be expressed as, e.g., Cd-Ucr), and the data thus obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation. The largest geometric mean (GM) for Cd-Ucr among the ten prefecture was 3.2 microg Cd/g cr, and the maximum Cd-Ucr observed among the women studied was 20.9 microg Cd/g cr. RESULTS: Both alpha(1)-MG-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr increased as a function of the increase in Cd-Ucr among all the women and also in sub-populations of narrow age ranges (i.e., 41-50 and 51-60 years), with no apparent threshold Cd-Ucr. Comparison of the cases exceeding cut-off alpha(1)-MG-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr levels also indicated a Cd dose-dependent increase in the prevalence, similarly without a threshold Cd-Ucr. In addition, such findings were essentially reproducible when elevation in alpha(1)-MG-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr levels was examined with the three essential elements, especially with Ca-Ucr and Mg-Ucr, although less clearly with Zn-Ucr. The observations as a whole suggest a possibility that the dose-dependent increases in alpha(1)-MG-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr with no apparent threshold for element concentration is not specific to Cd-Ucr but common to other elements. CONCLUSIONS: No threshold Cd-Ucr was detected in relation to the increases in alpha(1)-MG-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr. The element dose-dependent increases in the two MGs with no threshold in the element concentration might be not limited to Cd, but common to other elements. Further studies are apparently necessary.
T Ezaki; T Tsukahara; J Moriguchi; K Furuki; Y Fukui; H Ukai; S Okamoto; H Sakurai; S Honda; M Ikeda
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2002-12-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  International archives of occupational and environmental health     Volume:  76     ISSN:  0340-0131     ISO Abbreviation:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Publication Date:  2003 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-04-11     Completed Date:  2003-10-02     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7512134     Medline TA:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  197-204     Citation Subset:  IM    
Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Cadmium / pharmacology,  urine*
Cadmium Poisoning / urine*
Calcium / urine
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental Exposure*
Environmental Monitoring
Kidney Diseases / chemically induced*,  urine*
Kidney Tubules / drug effects
Magnesium / urine
Middle Aged
Zinc / urine
Reg. No./Substance:
7439-95-4/Magnesium; 7440-43-9/Cadmium; 7440-66-6/Zinc; 7440-70-2/Calcium

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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