Document Detail

Analysis of risk factors for myocardial infarction and cardiac mortality after major vascular surgery.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10861156     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing vascular surgical procedures are at high risk for perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI). This study was undertaken to identify predictors of PMI and in-hospital death in major vascular surgical patients. METHODS: From the Vascular Surgery Registry (6,948 operations from January 1989 through June 1997) the authors identified 107 patients in whom PMI developed during the same hospital stay. Case-control patients (patients without PMI) were matched at a 1x:x1 ratio with index cases according to the type of surgery, gender, patient age, and year of surgery. The authors analyzed data regarding preoperative cardiac disease and surgical and anesthetic factors to study association with PMI and cardiac death. RESULTS: By using univariable analysis the authors identified the following predictors of PMI: valvular disease (P = 0.007), previous congestive heart failure (P = 0.04), emergency surgery (P = 0.02), general anesthesia (P = 0.03), preoperative history of coronary artery disease (P = 0.001), preoperative treatment with beta-blockers (P = 0.003), lower preoperative (P = 0.03) and postoperative (P = 0.002) hemoglobin concentrations, increased bleeding rate (as assessed from increased cell salvage; P = 0.025), and lower ejection fraction (P = 0.02). Of the 107 patients with PMI, 20.6% died of cardiac cause during the same hospital stay. The following factors increased the odds ratios for cardiac death: age (P = 0.001), recent congestive heart failure (P = 0.01), type of surgery (P = 0.04), emergency surgery (P = 0.02), lower intraoperative diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.001), new intraoperative ST-T changes (P = 0.01), and increased intraoperative use of blood (P = 0.005). Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, even more than 12 months before index surgery, had a 79% reduction in risk of death if they had PMI (P = 0.01). Multivariable analysis revealed preoperative definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease (P = 0.001) and significant valvular disease (P = 0.03) were associated with increased risk of PMI. Congestive heart failure less than 1 yr before index vascular surgery (P = 0. 0002) and increased intraoperative use of blood (P = 0.007) were associated with cardiac death. The history of coronary artery bypass grafting reduced the risk of cardiac death (P = 0.04) in patients with PMI. CONCLUSIONS: The in-hospital cardiac mortality rate is high for patients who undergo vascular surgery and experience clinically significant PMI. Stress of surgery (increased intraoperative bleeding and aortic, peripheral vascular, and emergency surgery), poor preoperative cardiac functional status (congestive heart failure, lower ejection fraction, diagnosis of coronary artery disease), and preoperative history of coronary artery bypass grafting are the factors that determine perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality rates.
J Sprung; B Abdelmalak; A Gottlieb; C Mayhew; J Hammel; P J Levy; P O'Hara; N R Hertzer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Anesthesiology     Volume:  93     ISSN:  0003-3022     ISO Abbreviation:  Anesthesiology     Publication Date:  2000 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-08-07     Completed Date:  2000-08-07     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1300217     Medline TA:  Anesthesiology     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  129-40     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of General Anesthesiology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Case-Control Studies
Heart Diseases / complications,  mortality*
Hospital Mortality
Intraoperative Complications / etiology,  mortality
Logistic Models
Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis,  etiology*,  mortality
Postoperative Complications / etiology*,  mortality
Risk Factors
Vascular Diseases / surgery*
Comment In:
Anesthesiology. 2001 Mar;94(3):540-1   [PMID:  11374622 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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