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Analysis of micronuclei, histopathological changes and cell proliferation in nasal epithelium cells of rats after exposure to formaldehyde by inhalation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21272661     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The frequencies of micronuclei (MN), histopathological changes and cell proliferation were determined in the nasal epithelium of male Fischer-344 rats after exposure to formaldehyde (FA) by whole-body inhalation for four weeks (6 hr/day, 5 days/week). Groups of 12 rats each were exposed to the target concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 10 and 15ppm. The micronucleus test (MNT) was performed with nasal epithelial cells prepared from six animals per group. Two thousand cells per animal were analysed for the presence of MN. The other six rats per group were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic pumps containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd), three days prior to necropsy. Paraffin sections were made from the nasal cavity (four levels) of these animals for histopathology and cell-proliferation measurements. The frequency of cells with MN was not increased in any of the groups. However, there was also no induction of MN in nasal cells of rats exposed to a single dose of cyclophosphamide (CP, 20mg/kg) by gavage and analysed 3, 7, 14 or 28 days after the treatment. In contrast, nasal epithelial cells from rats exposed to 10 or 15ppm FA vapour showed clear site-specific pathological changes (focal epithelial degeneration, inflammation and squamous metaplasia) in a decreasing gradient (anterior to posterior). Analysis of slides after anti-BrdUrd antibody staining clearly indicated increased cell proliferation (unit length labelling indices, ULLI) after exposure to 6ppm and higher. No treatment-related effects were measured after exposure to 0.5, 1 and 2ppm. When comparing the cell-proliferation rate of normal epithelium with that of directly adjacent metaplastic epithelium, no consistent pattern was found: depending on the location, cell proliferation of normal epithelia was either higher or lower. Our results support previous findings demonstrating local cytotoxic effects in the nose of rats after inhalation of FA. However, induction of MN in the nasal epithelium as an indicator of a mutagenic effect was not seen. Because only limited experience exists for the MNT with rat nasal epithelial cells, this result has to be interpreted with great care. The contribution of mutagenicity to FA's carcinogenicity in rat nasal epithelium remains unclear.
Günter Speit; Petra Schütz; Irmgard Weber; Lan Ma-Hock; Wolfgang Kaufmann; Heinz-Peter Gelbke; Stefan Durrer
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-1-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Mutation research     Volume:  -     ISSN:  0027-5107     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-1-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0400763     Medline TA:  Mutat Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Universität Ulm, Institut für Humangenetik, D - 89069 Ulm, Germany.
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