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Anaemia and resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents as prognostic factors in haemodialysis patients: results from the RISCAVID study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21325348     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) is often associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we investigated how anaemia, ESA resistance and the plasma levels of biological markers of inflammation could influence all-cause and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Seven hundred and fifty-three haemodialysis (HD) patients (mean age 66 ± 14.2 years, mean dialytic age 70 ± 77 months and diabetes 18.8%) were enrolled and followed-up for 36 months. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, co-morbidity conditions, administered drugs, all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events were recorded. We measured ESA resistance index, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-one patients (86.4%) received ESAs. Patients with haemoglobin level <11 g/dL (n = 225) showed increased risk of CV [relative risk (RR) 1.415, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.046-1.914] and overall mortality (RR 1.897, 95% CI 1.423-2.530) versus patients with haemoglobin levels >11 g/dL. ESA resistance values categorized into quartiles (Quartile I <5.6, Quartile II 5.7-9.6, Quartile III 9.7-15.4 and Quartile IV >15.4) correlated with all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal CV events (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.392-2.786; RR 1.619, 95% CI 1.123-2.332, respectively). Furthermore, albumin was significantly reduced versus reference patients and correlated with all-cause mortality and CV events; CRP levels were higher in hyporesponders (Quartile IV) (P < 0.001) and predicted all-cause mortality and CV events. IL-6 but not CRP was a strong predictor of ESA resistance. CONCLUSIONS: ESA responsiveness can be considered a strong prognostic factor in HD patients and seems to be tightly related to protein-energy wasting and inflammation.
Vincenzo Panichi; Alberto Rosati; Roberto Bigazzi; Sabrina Paoletti; Emanuela Mantuano; Sara Beati; Valentina Marchetti; Giada Bernabini; Giovanni Grazi; Giovanni Manca Rizza; Massimiliano Migliori; Riccardo Giusti; Alberto Lippi; Aldo Casani; Giuliano Barsotti; Ciro Tetta;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-2-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1460-2385     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-2-17     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8706402     Medline TA:  Nephrol Dial Transplant     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
1Nephrology and Dialysis Versilia Hospital, Versilia, Italy.
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