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Amorphous diamond: a high-pressure superhard carbon allotrope.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22107536     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Compressing glassy carbon above 40 GPa, we have observed a new carbon allotrope with a fully sp^{3}-bonded amorphous structure and diamondlike strength. Synchrotron x-ray Raman spectroscopy revealed a continuous pressure-induced sp^{2}-to-sp^{3} bonding change, while x-ray diffraction confirmed the perseverance of noncrystallinity. The transition was reversible upon releasing pressure. Used as an indenter, the glassy carbon ball demonstrated exceptional strength by reaching 130 GPa with a confining pressure of 60 GPa. Such an extremely large stress difference of >70  GPa has never been observed in any material besides diamond, indicating the high hardness of this high-pressure carbon allotrope.
Yu Lin; Li Zhang; Ho-Kwang Mao; Paul Chow; Yuming Xiao; Maria Baldini; Jinfu Shu; Wendy L Mao
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-10-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physical review letters     Volume:  107     ISSN:  1079-7114     ISO Abbreviation:  Phys. Rev. Lett.     Publication Date:  2011 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401141     Medline TA:  Phys Rev Lett     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  175504     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
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