Document Detail

Amino acid signalling and the integration of metabolism.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14684175     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
It has become clear in recent years that amino acids are not only important as substrates for various metabolic pathways but that they can also activate a nutrient-sensitive, mTOR-mediated, signalling pathway in synergy with insulin. Leucine is the most effective amino acid in this regard. The signalling pathway is antagonised by AMP-activated protein kinase. Amino acid signalling stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits (autophagic) proteolysis. In addition, many amino acids cause an increase in cell volume. Cell swelling per se stimulates synthesis of protein, glycogen, and lipid, in part by further stimulating signalling and in part by unrelated mechanisms. Amino acids also stimulate signalling in beta-cells and stimulate beta-cell growth and proliferation. This results in increased production of insulin, which enhances the anabolic (and anti-catabolic) properties of amino acids. Finally, amino acid-dependent signalling controls the production of leptin by adipocytes, and thus contributes to the regulation of appetite.
Alfred J Meijer; Peter F Dubbelhuis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biochemical and biophysical research communications     Volume:  313     ISSN:  0006-291X     ISO Abbreviation:  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.     Publication Date:  2004 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-12-19     Completed Date:  2004-02-10     Revised Date:  2009-11-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372516     Medline TA:  Biochem Biophys Res Commun     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  397-403     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / physiology*
Cell Size / physiology
Energy Metabolism
Insulin / metabolism
Islets of Langerhans / growth & development,  metabolism
Protein Kinases / metabolism
Proteins / metabolism*
Signal Transduction / physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Proteins; 11061-68-0/Insulin; EC 2.7.-/Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.-/mTOR protein

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