Document Detail


Amino acid catabolism: a pivotal regulator of innate and adaptive immunity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22889220     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Enhanced amino acid catabolism is a common response to inflammation, but the immunologic significance of altered amino acid consumption remains unclear. The finding that tryptophan catabolism helped maintain fetal tolerance during pregnancy provided novel insights into the significance of amino acid metabolism in controlling immunity. Recent advances in identifying molecular pathways that enhance amino acid catabolism and downstream mechanisms that affect immune cells in response to inflammatory cues support the notion that amino acid catabolism regulates innate and adaptive immune cells in pathologic settings. Cells expressing enzymes that degrade amino acids modulate antigen-presenting cell and lymphocyte functions and reveal critical roles for amino acid- and catabolite-sensing pathways in controlling gene expression, functions, and survival of immune cells. Basal amino acid catabolism may contribute to immune homeostasis that prevents autoimmunity, whereas elevated amino acid catalytic activity may reinforce immune suppression to promote tumorigenesis and persistence of some pathogens that cause chronic infections. For these reasons, there is considerable interest in generating novel drugs that inhibit or induce amino acid consumption and target downstream molecular pathways that control immunity. In this review, we summarize recent developments and highlight novel concepts and key outstanding questions in this active research field.
Authors:
Tracy L McGaha; Lei Huang; Henrique Lemos; Richard Metz; Mario Mautino; George C Prendergast; Andrew L Mellor
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunological reviews     Volume:  249     ISSN:  1600-065X     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-08-14     Completed Date:  2013-02-04     Revised Date:  2013-04-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7702118     Medline TA:  Immunol Rev     Country:  Denmark    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  135-57     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Affiliation:
Immunotherapy Center, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. tmcgaha@georgiahealth.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adaptive Immunity*
Amino Acids / metabolism*
Animals
Humans
Immunity, Innate*
Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase / genetics,  metabolism
Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors,  metabolism
Self Tolerance
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R01 CA109542/CA/NCI NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase; EC 2.7.1.1/MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1/TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1/EIF2AK4 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1/Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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