Document Detail


Am I safe? The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex 'detects' when an unpleasant event does not occur.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17869541     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is implicated in contingency detection and the evaluation of emotionally significant stimuli. However, the mechanisms whereby an individual can effectively avoid painful or unpleasant events are not well understood. We therefore examined whether the absence of an unpleasant somatosensory stimulus could evoke a response in the human VLPFC as a correlate of contingency detection (the feeling that "I am safe") without any immediately preceding stimulus. In a differential trace-conditioning paradigm, the unpleasant stimulus followed the partially reinforced stimulus in 50% of trials after 3 s; it never occurred after the nonreinforced stimulus. High-resolution DC electroencephalography, current source density mapping, and spatio-temporal source analysis were performed. After the nonreinforced stimulus, a highly significant negativity over the VLPFC began about a second after the time for the unpleasant stimulus to occur had passed. We concluded that the VLPFC can be activated merely by a sequence of stimuli (with long interstimulus intervals) without any directly preceding stimulus, provided that this sequence creates the expectation that at a certain time an unpleasant stimulus might occur. This mechanism might allow for the detection of conditions under which harmful events could be avoided. Moreover, in reinforced trials, we found a highly significantly lateralized negativity (N700) that outlasted the strong, unpleasant somatosensory stimulus for about a second. Topography and source analysis pointed to prolonged activation of the somatosensory system. This processing stage preceded activation of the VLPFC. We concluded that N700 might provide important insights into the time course of somatosensory memory traces.
Authors:
Stephan Bender; Stefanie Hellwig; Franz Resch; Matthias Weisbrod
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2007-08-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  NeuroImage     Volume:  38     ISSN:  1053-8119     ISO Abbreviation:  Neuroimage     Publication Date:  2007 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-10-15     Completed Date:  2008-01-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9215515     Medline TA:  Neuroimage     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  367-85     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, and Section for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychiatric Hospital, Germany. Stephan.Bender@med.uni-heidelberg.de
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Brain Mapping
Emotions*
Functional Laterality
Humans
Middle Aged
Photic Stimulation
Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*
Reaction Time
Safety*
Somatosensory Cortex / physiology

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