Document Detail

Aluminum speciation studies in biological fluids. Part 9. A quantitative investigation of aluminum(III)-glutamate complex equilibria and their potential implications for aluminum metabolism and toxicity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14507466     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
As a nonessential element, aluminum is likely to be toxic both at low usual dietary levels in the long run (chronic toxicity) and at high therapeutic levels in shorter periods of time (acute toxicity). In both situations, aluminum toxicity is a direct function of aluminum bioavailability, which is itself dependent on Al(3+) solubility and charge neutralization. Dietary acids, by their intrinsic acidity and coordinating capacity, can extend the pH range, thus the section of the gastrointestinal tract, within which the Al(3+) ion remains soluble, and also help Al(3+) diffusion across the intestinal epithelium through the formation of neutral complex species. The present work examines the impact of glutamic acid, an essential amino acid also widely used in industrial food and drinks, on aluminum speciation in the gastrointestinal tract and blood plasma. Complex formation between the Al(3+) ion and glutamate has first been investigated through potentiometric titrations, complex stoichiometries being then checked by ESI mass spectrometry and NMR measurements. A series of mono- and polynuclear species has been characterized, whose influence on aluminum distribution in vivo has been assessed by computer simulation. The capacity of glutamate to maintain Al(3+) ions in solution under normal dietary conditions is predicted to be intermediate between glycine-like amino acids and succinate on the one hand, and tartrate and malate on the other hand, its Al(3+) neutralization effect being similar to that of succinate, tartrate and malate. These results, which point to a potential aggravating role of glutamate on aluminum gastrointestinal absorption, substantiate recent observations made on rats. In spite of the moderate effect expected from glutamate on aluminum bioavailability under most aluminum-based therapies investigated, attention is therefore called to the risk of glutamic acid ingestion simultaneously to any aluminum therapeutic form. Incidentally, the former implication of 'the' aluminum glutamate complex in the transfer of aluminum through the blood-brain barrier of aluminum loaded rats may effectively be attributed to one of the species characterized here, but is of no significance at all to aluminum contamination in humans, even at most extreme levels.
Sandrine Daydé; Véronique Brumas; Delphine Champmartin; Patrice Rubini; Guy Berthon
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of inorganic biochemistry     Volume:  97     ISSN:  0162-0134     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Inorg. Biochem.     Publication Date:  2003 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-09-25     Completed Date:  2003-11-26     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7905788     Medline TA:  J Inorg Biochem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  104-17     Citation Subset:  IM    
Equipe de Chimie Bioinorganique Médicale, ICMPS-CNRS FR1744, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne Bat. 3SC, 31062 Toulouse, France.
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MeSH Terms
Aluminum Compounds / blood,  chemistry*,  metabolism*,  toxicity
Computer Simulation
Digestive System / metabolism*
Drug Stability
Glutamic Acid / chemistry*,  metabolism*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Potentiometry / methods
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Aluminum Compounds; 0/Protons; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid

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