Document Detail

Aluminum and bone disorders: with specific reference to aluminum contamination of infant nutrients.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3292633     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Aluminum (Al) impairment of bone matrix formation and mineralization may be mediated by its direct effect on bone cells or indirectly by its effect on parathyroid hormone and calcium metabolism. Its toxic effects are proportional to tissue Al load. Al contamination of nutrients depends on the amount of Al present naturally in chemicals or from the manufacturing process. Intravenous calcium, phosphorus, and albumin solutions have high Al (greater than 500 micrograms/L), whereas crystalline amino acid, sterile water, and dextrose water have low Al (less than 50 micrograms/L) content. Enteral nutrients including human and whole cow milk have low Al, whereas highly processed infant formulas with multiple additives, such as soy formula, preterm infant formula, and formulas for specific disorders are heavily contaminated with Al. Healthy adults are in zero balance for Al. The gastrointestinal tract excludes greater than 95% of dietary Al, and kidney is the dominant organ for Al excretion. However, even with normal renal function, only 30-60% of an Al load from parenteral nutrition is excreted in the urine, resulting in tissue accumulation of Al. The risk for Al toxicity is greatest in infants with chronic renal insufficiency, recipients of long term parenteral nutrition, i.e., no gut barrier to Al loading, and preterm infants with low Al binding capacity. The rapid growth of the infant would theoretically potentiate Al toxicity in all infants, although the critical level of Al loading causing bone disorders is not known. To minimize tissue burden, Al content of infant nutrients should be similar to "background" levels, i.e., similar to whole milk (less than 50 micrograms/L).
W W Koo; L A Kaplan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Volume:  7     ISSN:  0731-5724     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Coll Nutr     Publication Date:  1988 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1988-08-23     Completed Date:  1988-08-23     Revised Date:  2008-06-23    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8215879     Medline TA:  J Am Coll Nutr     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  199-214     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Aluminum / poisoning*
Bone Diseases / chemically induced*
Food Contamination*
Infant Food*
Infant, Newborn
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

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