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Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22779233     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone insufficiency in bottlenose dolphins.
Authors:
Todd R Robeck; Claudia Gill; Bethany M Doescher; Jay Sweeney; Piet De Laender; Cornelis E Van Elk; Justine K O'Brien
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians     Volume:  43     ISSN:  1042-7260     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Zoo Wildl. Med.     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-07-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8915208     Medline TA:  J Zoo Wildl Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  296-308     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
From SeaWorld and Busch Gardens Reproductive Research Center, SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment Corporation, 2595 Ingraham Road, San Diego, California 92109, USA. todd.robeck@seaworld.com
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