Document Detail

Alternative techniques of cardioplegia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1424027     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Although normothermic cardioplegia has been used with acceptable clinical results, no studies have previously been performed to determine the metabolic consequences of these various techniques of myocardial protection. Therefore, we have performed a randomized clinical trial to assess the effects of three cardioplegic techniques on myocardial metabolic recovery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-four patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomized to receive normothermic antegrade blood cardioplegia (n = 25), normothermic retrograde blood cardioplegia (n = 23), or intermittent cold antegrade blood cardioplegia (n = 26). Myocardial oxygen consumption and lactate production, adenine nucleotides, and adenine nucleotide degradation products were measured during the operation, and cardiac creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) release was assessed after surgery. Warm antegrade cardioplegia maximized myocardial oxygen consumption during cardioplegic delivery. Postoperative CK-MB release was less after warm antegrade cardioplegia, but the difference was not statistically significant. Warm retrograde cardioplegia resulted in the greatest degree of anaerobic lactate production but did not increase morbidity and mortality. Perioperative myocardial infarctions and postoperative low-output syndrome were most common after cold cardioplegia, but this trend was not statistically significant. During warm antegrade cardioplegia, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was metabolized to diffusible precursors, which were washed out during cardioplegic infusion. Warm retrograde cardioplegia produced a breakdown of ATP to inosine and hypoxanthine, small molecules that accumulated during the cross-clamp period and were not washed out, perhaps because of inadequate perfusion with retrograde delivery. During cold cardioplegia, ATP was dephosphorylated, and adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and adenosine accumulated. These compounds were not regenerated to ATP but were not washed out of myocytes because they are large anionic molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent cold cardioplegia inhibited mitochondrial function but prevented the degradation of adenine nucleotides. Warm antegrade cardioplegia had the greatest myocardial oxygen consumption, and warm retrograde cardioplegia had the greatest anaerobic lactate production. There were no differences in clinical outcomes between cardioplegic groups.
T M Yau; R D Weisel; D A Mickle; M Komeda; J Ivanov; S Carson; M K Mohabeer; L C Tumiati
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Circulation     Volume:  86     ISSN:  0009-7322     ISO Abbreviation:  Circulation     Publication Date:  1992 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1992-12-02     Completed Date:  1992-12-02     Revised Date:  2010-03-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0147763     Medline TA:  Circulation     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  II377-84     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Toronto Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
Coronary Artery Bypass
Creatine Kinase / metabolism
Heart Arrest, Induced / methods*
Lactates / metabolism
Lactic Acid
Middle Aged
Mitochondria, Heart / metabolism
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / metabolism,  prevention & control*
Myocardium / metabolism
Oxygen Consumption / physiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Lactates; 50-21-5/Lactic Acid; 56-65-5/Adenosine Triphosphate; EC Kinase

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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