Document Detail

Altered neural and vascular mechanisms in hypertension.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21615201     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder which belongs to the main risk factors responsible for renal and cardiovascular complications. This review is focused on the experimental research of neural and vascular mechanisms involved in the high blood pressure control. The attention is paid to the abnormalities in the regulation of sympathetic nervous system activity and adrenoceptor alterations as well as the changes of membrane and intracellular processes in the vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats. These abnormalities lead to increased vascular tone arising from altered regulation of calcium influx through L-VDCC channels, which has a crucial role for excitation-contraction coupling, as well as for so-called "calcium sensitization" mediated by the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway. Regulation of both pathways is dependent on the complex interplay of various vasodilator and vasoconstrictor stimuli. Two major antagonistic players in the regulation of blood pressure, i.e. sympathetic nervous system (by stimulation of adrenoceptors coupled to stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins) and nitric oxide (by cGMP signaling pathway), elicit their actions via the control of calcium influx through L-VDCC. However, L-type calcium current can also be regulated by the changes in membrane potential elicited by the activation of potassium channels, the impaired function of which was detected in hypertensive animals. The dominant role of enhanced calcium influx in the pathogenesis of high blood pressure of genetically hypertensive animals is confirmed not only by therapeutic efficacy of calcium antagonists but especially by the absence of hypertension in animals in which L-type calcium current was diminished by pertussis toxin-induced inactivation of inhibitory G proteins. Although there is considerable information on the complex neural and vascular alterations in rats with established hypertension, the detailed description of their appearance during the induction of hypertension is still missing.
M Pintérová; J Kuneš; J Zicha
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-5-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1802-9973     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-5-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9112413     Medline TA:  Physiol Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.
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