Document Detail

Allylmercapturic acid as urinary biomarker of human exposure to allyl chloride.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9423578     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of urinary mercapturic acids as a biomarker of human exposure to allyl chloride (3-chloropropene) (AC). During three regular shut down periods in a production factory for AC, both types of variables were measured in 136 workers involved in maintenance operations. METHODS: Potential airborne exposure to AC was measured by personal air monitoring in the breathing zone. In total 205 workshifts were evaluated. During 99 workshifts no respiratory protection equipment was used. Mercapturic acid metabolites were measured in urinary extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: During 86 work shifts when no respiratory protection was used the air concentrations of AC were below the Dutch eight hour time weighted average (8 h-TWA) occupational exposure limit (OEL) of AC (3 mg/m3), whereas in 13 workshifts the potential exposure, as measured by personal air monitoring, exceeded the OEL (3.3 to 17 mg/m3). With the aid of GC-MS, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (HPMA) was identified as a minor and allylmercapturic acid (ALMA) as a major metabolite of AC in urine samples from the maintenance workers exposed to AC. The concentrations of ALMA excreted were in a range from < 25 micrograms/l (detection limit) to 3550 micrograms/l. The increases in urinary ALMA concentrations during the workshifts correlated well with the 8h-TWA air concentrations of AC (r = 0.816, P = 0.0001, n = 39). Based on this correlation, for AC a biological exposure index (BEI) of 352 micrograms ALMA/g creatinine during an eight hour workshift is proposed. In some urine samples unexpectedly high concentrations of ALMA were found. Some of these could definitely be attributed to dermal exposure to AC. In other cases garlic consumption was identified as a confounding factor. CONCLUSION: The mercapturic acid ALMA was identified in urine of workers occupationally exposed to airborne AC and the increase in ALMA concentrations in urine during a workshift correlated well with the 8 h-TWA exposure to AC. Garlic consumption, but not smoking, is a potential confounding factor for this biomarker of human exposure to AC.
B M de Rooij; P J Boogaard; J N Commandeur; N J van Sittert; N P Vermeulen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Occupational and environmental medicine     Volume:  54     ISSN:  1351-0711     ISO Abbreviation:  Occup Environ Med     Publication Date:  1997 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-01-13     Completed Date:  1998-01-13     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422759     Medline TA:  Occup Environ Med     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  653-61     Citation Subset:  IM    
Leiden-Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research (LACDR), Department of Pharmacochemistry, Free University, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Acetylcysteine / analogs & derivatives,  urine*
Air Pollutants, Occupational / urine*
Allyl Compounds / urine*
Biological Markers / urine
Creatinine / urine
Environmental Monitoring*
Garlic / metabolism
Middle Aged
Plants, Medicinal
Regression Analysis
Smoking / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Allyl Compounds; 0/Biological Markers; 107-05-1/allyl chloride; 23127-40-4/S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate; 60-27-5/Creatinine; 616-91-1/Acetylcysteine

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