Document Detail

Alcohol drinkers overreport their energy intake in the BIRNH study: evaluation by 24-hour urinary excretion of cations. Belgian Interuniversity Research on Nutrition and Health.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11601566     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol drinkers are generally considered to underreport their alcohol intake, but little is known about whether they correctly report their energy intake (EI). We assessed the validity of the reported energy intake of alcohol drinkers using the 24-hour urinary (U) excretion of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) as biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 2,124 men and 1,998 women 25 to 74 years of age with a 24-hour urine collection, a random sample of the Belgian Interuniversity Research on Nutrition and Health (BIRNH). were studied. Dietary intake (D), including alcohol consumption, was assessed by a one-day food record. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was predicted from age, gender and weight. As a measure for the degree of reporting error, D-K/U-K, D-Na/U-Na, EI/U-K, Non-alcohol EI/U-Na (NAEI/U-Na), EI/U-Na, EI/U-creatinine and EI/BMR ratios were calculated and compared among non-, moderate and heavy drinkers in both genders. RESULTS: EI, NAEI and all seven ratios examined generally increased with the level of alcohol intake in both genders. After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking and educational level, most ratios were significantly higher in moderate drinkers (p < 0.02 to p < 0.0001) and in heavy drinkers (all p < 0.0001) than in non-drinkers. These differences were most significant in male heavy drinkers. The exceptions were D-K/U-K, D-Na/U-Na and NAEI/U-Na in moderate and female heavy drinkers and EI/U-K in male moderate drinkers. The estimated amount of the overreporting of EI by heavy drinkers was 27.8% in men and 13.7% in women. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that EI and NAEI obtained from the BIRNH study was overreported among alcohol drinkers, especially among male heavy drinkers. It also indicates that EI from alcohol replaced EI from food.
J Zhang; E H Temme; H Kesteloot
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Volume:  20     ISSN:  0731-5724     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Coll Nutr     Publication Date:  2001 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-10-16     Completed Date:  2002-02-26     Revised Date:  2008-06-23    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8215879     Medline TA:  J Am Coll Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  510-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
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MeSH Terms
Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology,  urine*
Basal Metabolism
Belgium / epidemiology
Biological Markers / urine
Creatinine / urine
Diet Records
Diet Surveys
Energy Intake / physiology*
Middle Aged
Potassium / urine*
Self Disclosure
Sex Factors
Sodium / urine*
gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 60-27-5/Creatinine; 7440-09-7/Potassium; 7440-23-5/Sodium; EC

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