Document Detail

Aib and iva in the biosphere: neither rare nor necessarily extraterrestrial.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19180454     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Fourty-nine species and strains of filamentous fungi of the genera Acremonium, Bionectria, Clonostachys, Emericellopsis, Hypocrea/Trichoderma, Lecythophora, Monocillium, Nectriopsis, Niesslia, Tolypocladium, and Wardomyces, deposited with the culture collection of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) in Utrecht, The Netherlands, were grown on nutrient agar plates. Organic extracts of mycelia were analyzed after acidic total hydrolysis and derivatization by GC/SIM-MS on Chirasil-L-Val for the presence of Aib (=alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, 2-methylalanine) and DL-Iva (=isovaline, 2-ethylalanine). In 37 of the hydrolysates, Aib was detected, and in several of them D-Iva or mixtures of D- and L-Iva. Non-proteinogenic Aib, in particular, is a highly specific marker for a distinctive group of fungal polypeptides named peptaibols or, comprehensively, peptaibiotics, i.e., peptides containing Aib and displaying (anti)biotic activities. The biotic synthesis of these amino acids by filamentous fungi contradicts the still widespread belief that alpha,alpha-dialkyl-alpha-amino acids do not or rarely occur in the biosphere and, if detected, are of extraterrestrial origin. The abundant production of peptaibiotics by cosmopolitan species of microfungi has also to be considered in the discussion on the occurrence of Aib and Iva in ancient and recent sediments. The detection of trace amounts of Aib in ice samples of Antarctica that are devoid of meteorites might also be related to the presence of Aib-producing microorganisms, being either indigenous psychrophiles, or being transported and localized by mechanisms related to bioaerosols and cryoconites. The presence of microfungi being capable of producing alpha,alpha-dialkyl alpha-amino acids in terrestrial samples, and possible contamination of extraterrestrial materials are pointed out to be of relevance for the reliable interpretation of cosmogeochemical data.
Hans Brückner; Dieter Becker; Walter Gams; Thomas Degenkolb
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemistry & biodiversity     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1612-1880     ISO Abbreviation:  Chem. Biodivers.     Publication Date:  2009 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-02-03     Completed Date:  2009-03-27     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101197449     Medline TA:  Chem Biodivers     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  38-56     Citation Subset:  IM    
Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Biosystems, Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ), Department of Food Sciences, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen.
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MeSH Terms
Aminoisobutyric Acids / chemistry*
Extraterrestrial Environment
Fungi / chemistry
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Peptaibols / chemistry,  isolation & purification
Valine / chemistry*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Aminoisobutyric Acids; 0/Peptaibols; 595-40-4/isovaline; 62-57-7/2-aminoisobutyric acid; 7004-03-7/Valine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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