Document Detail

Aged garlic extract enhances exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23346301     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Aged garlic extract (AGE) is known to have a protective effect against immune system, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation. We examined the effects of exercise with and without aged garlic extract administration on body weight, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress marker in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD (HFD, n = 40) or a normal diet (ND, n = 5) for 6 weeks and thereafter randomized into ND (n = 5), HFD (n = 10), HFD with AGE (n = 10), HFD with Exercise (n = 10), or HFD with Exercise+AGE (n = 10) for 4 weeks. AGE groups were administered at a dose of 2.86 g/kg·body weight, orally. Exercise consisted of running 15-60 min 5 days/week with gradually increasing intensity. AGE (P < 0.01), Exercise, and Exercise+AGE (P < 0.001) attenuated body weight gain and food efficiency ratio compared to HFD. Visceral fat and liver weight gain were attenuated (P < 0.05) with all three interventions with a greater effect on visceral fat in the Exercise+AGE than AGE (P < 0.001). In reducing visceral fat (P < 0.001), epididymal fat (P < 0.01) and liver weight (P < 0.001), Exercise+AGE was effective, but exercise showed a stronger suppressive effect than AGE. Exercise+AGE showed further additive effects on reducing visceral fat and liver weight (P < 0.001). AGE significantly attenuated the increase in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with HFD (P < 0.05). Exercise+AGE attenuated the increase in triglycerides compared with HFD (P < 0.05). Exercise group significantly decrease in C-reactive protein (P < 0.001). These results suggest that AGE supplementation and exercise alone have anti-obesity, cholesterol lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects, but the combined intervention is more effective in reducing weight gain and triglycerides levels than either intervention alone.
Authors:
Dae Yun Seo; Sungryul Lee; Arturo Figueroa; Yi Sub Kwak; Nari Kim; Byoung Doo Rhee; Kyung Soo Ko; Hyun Seok Bang; Yeong Ho Baek; Jin Han
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-12-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition research and practice     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1976-1457     ISO Abbreviation:  Nutr Res Pract     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-24     Completed Date:  2013-01-25     Revised Date:  2013-05-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101311052     Medline TA:  Nutr Res Pract     Country:  Korea (South)    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  513-9     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, 633-165, Gaegeum-dong, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-735, Korea.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Nutr Res Pract
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Nutr Res Pract
Journal ID (publisher-id): NRP
ISSN: 1976-1457
ISSN: 2005-6168
Publisher: The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition
Article Information
Download PDF
©2012 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition
open-access:
Received Day: 13 Month: 8 Year: 2012
Revision Received Day: 19 Month: 9 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 04 Month: 10 Year: 2012
Print publication date: Month: 12 Year: 2012
Electronic publication date: Day: 31 Month: 12 Year: 2012
Volume: 6 Issue: 6
First Page: 513 Last Page: 519
PubMed Id: 23346301
ID: 3542441
DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2012.6.6.513

Aged garlic extract enhances exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats
Dae Yun Seo1
SungRyul Lee1
Arturo Figueroa2
Yi Sub Kwak3
Nari Kim1
Byoung Doo Rhee1
Kyung Soo Ko1
Hyun Seok Bang4
Yeong Ho Baek5*
Jin Han1*
1National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, 633-165, Gaegeum-dong, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-735, Korea.
2Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-1493, USA.
3Department of Physical Education, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714, Korea.
4Division of Humanities and Social Science, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea.
5Department of Physical Education, Pusan University, Busan 609-735, Korea.
Correspondence: Corresponding Author: Jin Han, Tel. 82-51-890-6727, Fax. 82-51-891-8748, phyhanj@inje.ac.kr
[equal] *The two authors contributed equally to this study.

Introduction

The prevalence of obesity has been known to indicate serious public health problems in the world. It is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and many chronic diseases that result from an imbalance between energy intake and physical activity [1-3]. Excess energy intake and reduced energy expenditure promotes metabolic dysfunction [4-7], oxidative stress and inflammatory pathologic factors that increase the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) [1,2,4,5,8].

Increased adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of low-grade inflammation, which is characterized by cytokine production and stimulation of inflammatory cytokine signaling pathways [9]. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis [10]. Potential therapeutic regimens for severe obesity are non-conservative dietary interventions, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery [11]. Other interventions performed either alone or in combination include improving nutritional habits, increasing physical activity levels, and undergoing psychological treatment [12].

Previous studies have documented that nutritional application of various metabolic dysfunction have been conducted with the aim of regulating obesity [13-16]. There is a developing interest in the use of phytochemical compounds as medicinal alternative due to their lack of toxicity and the relative ease and cost of production. Garlic (Allium sativum) has several biological benefits including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-dyslipidemic effects [17]. Aged garlic extract (AGE) differs from other garlic varieties; it has less stimulating and pungent properties than bulbs and contains more newly converted sulfur-containing compounds (gamma-glutamyl cysteine, S-allyl cysteine, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-methyl cysteine) than those found in cooked or raw garlic [18]. AGE and its individual components have been shown to improve plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines [19-21]. However, the effect of AGE on reduced body weight is unknown [4,6,17-19].

Physical exercise training has been widely demonstrated to be beneficial for improving metabolic function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats because it improves lipid profiles and reduces fat mass, inflammation, and oxidative stress [22,23]. However, the effect of AGE supplementation on exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in HFD-induced obese rats is unknown.

We hypothesized that AGE supplementation combined with exercise may improve metabolic parameters in HFD-induced obese rats. Therefore, we evaluated the additive effect of AGE on exercise-mediated changes in body weight, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in rats with HFD-induced obesity.


Materials and Methods
Animals and experimental design

Forty-five male Sprague Dawley rats (3 weeks old) were purchased from Dae Han Biolink (Chung Cheong do, Korea). The rats were housed two per cage on a 12:12-h- light/dark cycle in a temperature-maintained room at 25℃ with 45 ± 5% humidity in compliance with the animal care standards of the American College of Sports Medicine. All experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at Pusan National University.

All rats were given 7 days to adjust to their new environment. At 4 weeks of age, the animals were fed either a normal diet (ND; n = 5) or high-fat diet (HFD; n = 40) for 6 weeks (Table 1 shows the composition of diet). After 6 weeks, animals in the HFD group were randomized into the following groups (Table 2): HFD (HFD, n = 10), HFD with AGE (AGE, n = 10), HFD with exercise (Exercise, n = 10), and HFD with exercise and AGE (Exercise+AGE, n = 10) for 4 weeks. The food efficiency ratios (g body weight/kcal) were calculated as the ratio of body weight gain (g) from 1 day to 16 days and the total amount of food (kcal) ingested over that period. The animals were sacrificed 48 h after last exercise bout and/or AGE ingestion.

Experimental dietand exercise training

The HFD contained 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate, and 45% fat as previously described [24]. The ND (fat; 15.8% of kilocalories consumed, D10012G) and HFD (fat; 45% of kilocalories consumed, D12541) formulations were purchased from Research Diets (New Brunswick, NJ), and their nutritional composition is shown in Table 1 [25]. AGE made from organically grown garlic and contacting sulfide, disulfide, S-ally-cysteine, and protein was obtained from Uiseong Black-Garlic Farming Association of Korea Co., Ltd. The AGE used contained 28.6% (w/v) solid material. S-Allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was also present as 0.1% of the total solids, calculated on a dry weight basis [25]. AGE was orally provided at a dose of 2.86 g/kg to both the AGE and Exercise+AGE groups. In the combined group, AGE was provided 30 min before exercise five times per week for 4 weeks [26]. Other groups were treated similarly with distilled water instead of AGE. Animals were trained on a motorized treadmill (Dual treadmill, DJ344, Dae Jong, Seoul, Korea) five times per week for 4 weeks.

Exercise intensity and duration were as follows: first and second weeks: 15 m/min for 45 and 60 min, respectively; third and fourth weeks: 20 m/min for 30 and 45 min, respectively. [27]. Because Boor et al. [27] used a similar adaptation protocol (15 m/min for 30-60 min) to prepare the rats for a period of training at higher exercise intensity. In order to produce beneficial adaptations and avoid overtraining and injuries, the velocity of the treadmill was increased while the duration was maintained. If a longer training intervention is used, the speed will be kept at 20 m/min and the duration would increase from 45 to 60 min in third period. Due to the short duration of the current study, we decided to increase the velocity and maintain the duration up to 45 min in the 4th week. We used the needle plate only for a week to motivate the animals during the exercise training to accustom them into running. Additionally, although we called it needle plate, the edge is dull and did not cause any abrasion to the rats. It gave more merit than using electrical shock device the latter which heightens the rodents' stress level.

Body weight, tissue mass and blood chemistry assay

To avoid immediate effects of exercise and supplementation, rats were euthanized 48 h after the last exercise bout and AGE intake. The rats were anesthetized at theabdomen using a heparinized syringe. Visceral fat, epididymal fat, liver, gastrocnemius and soleus samples were removed and weighed after sacrificing the animals.

Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta into heparinized or EDTA-coated tubes. The plasma was immediately separated by centrifugation at 3,000 × g for 10 min and kept frozen at -80℃ until it was assayed. T-C, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG concentrations were measured in an automatic blood analyzer (Hitachi 7600-210 and 7180, Tokyo, Japan) with enzymatic techniques based on a colorimetric assay.Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), C-reactive protein (CRP, BD Biosciences, USA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured by spectrophotometry using a commercial thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances assay kit (Zeptometrix, USA). All assays were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions.

Statistical analysis

Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Differences among the groups were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at baseline. If ANOVA indicated significance, a Duncan post hoc test was performed. The alpha level of significance was set at P < 0.05. All analyses were performed with SPSS version 19.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).


Results
Effect of AGE supplementation and exercise on body weight, food intake, and food efficiency ratio

Body weight, food intake, and food efficiency ratio (FER) are shown in Table 2. ND-fed rats had a lower average body weight than HFD rats at baseline. Before AGE and exercise interventions, there were no significant differences in body weight among the HFD groups. However, the HFD rats had significantly increased body weight compared to the other four groups after 2, 3, and 4 weeks (Fig. 1). In addition, the final weight, weight gain, average weight gain, and FER were greater in the HFD group compared to the other four groups (Table 2). Exercise decreased body weight gain more strongly than AGE. Exercise+ AGE supplementation caused a significant weight loss compared to all the other groups. In addition, Exercise+AGE group was markedly reduced in contrast to HFD and HFD+AGE groups. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the ND and Exercise+AGE group implying a beneficial effect. Relative food intake was reduced by AGE, Exercise, and Exercise+AGE compared with HFD, but the combined treatment did not have an additive effect on food intake.

Effect of AGE supplementation and exercise on fat, liver, and muscle weights

Visceral fat, epididymal fat, and liver weights were significantly higher in the HFD group compared to the other groups (Table 3). Exercise, AGE, and Exercise+AGE were effective in attenuating increased visceral fat and liver weight, but Exercise and Exercise+AGE had a stronger suppressive effect on visceral fat than AGE administration alone. Epididymal fat gain was not attenuated by AGE or Exercise. However, the combined of Exercise+AGE significantly inhibited epididymal fat accumulation compared to the other groups. HFD feeding slightly increased gastrocnemius weight but there was no significant difference following exercise.

Effect of AGE supplementation and exercise on blood lipid profile

Serum T-C and LDL-C concentrations were higher in the HFD group compared with the ND and AGE groups (Table 4). TG levels were higher in the HFD group compared with the ND and Exercise+AGE groups. Individual AGE and exercise regimens were not effective in reducing TG, but Exercise+AGE did cause a decrease in TG levels.

Effect of AGE supplementation and exercise on inflammatory markers

IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were assessed to determine the effect of AGE and exercise intervention on inflammation in HFD-induced obese rats (Table 5). TNF-α and IL-6 were unchanged by HFD. Exercise (P < 0.001) and Exercise+AGE groups had lower CRP levels than the ND, HFD, and AGE groups. Contrary to our expectations, HFD did not induce a significant increase in blood MDA levels (Table 4).


Discussion

This study demonstrates that a 4-week regimen of supplementation with AGE with and without exercise on body weight, fat accumulation, and inflammatory cytokines in HFD-induced obese rats. This result suggested that the major finding was that AGE supplementation showed anti-obesity effects; it attenuated the increase in body weight, visceral fat, liver weight, T-C, and LDL-C. Exercise with/without AGE supplementation also significantly improved obesity status, but the combination of exercise and AGE had an additive effect on body weight, visceral fat, and epididymal fat gain, as well as on TG levels.

High-energy diets are widely used to induce obesity and fat deposition in animals. Most studies found that HFD results in increased body weight, fat mass, and the development of hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome [28,29]. We found that the HFD group had less food intake and a higher food efficiency ratio than the ND group. These findings indicate that the decrease in food intake was due to the increased amount of energy in the HFD, which has been reported previously [30]. As expected, we found that the HFD significantly increased body weight and, fat mass, which led to obesity and hyperlipidemia [31].

Exercise training is routinely suggested to prevent lifestyle-related diseases that are associated with obesity. It attenuates increase in body weight and visceral fat and reduces metabolic risk factors by increasing energy expenditure [32]. In our HFD-induced obesity model, exercise significantly attenuated body weight and visceral fat increases observed during HFD consumption. These results indicate that increased physical activity was the main reason for reduced body fat accumulation. Our findings are similar to those of Gollisch et al. [7], who demonstrated that exercise training led to reductions in body weight and visceral adipose tissue in rats. Similarly, we found that AGE supplementation also reduced the effect of HFD on weight and visceral fat gain. As expected, the combination of exercise and AGE supplementation was more effective than either intervention alone; the combined regimen attenuated the effect of the HFD on body and liver weight, as well as visceral and epididymal fat. Although the combined intervention group had the lowest liver weight, this result was not significantly different from the single interventions.

Food intake regulation, which may be modulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms, is an exceedingly complex biological process that involves a large number of cues and biological substrates [33]. Energy expenditure by exercise and suppression of food intake may be related to altered appetite due to hypothalamic signals [34]. In the present study, AGE supplementation and exercise either alone or as combined treatments significantly inhibited food intake. These interventions had a cumulative effect on reducing body weight, epididymal fat, liver weight, and TG levels. It is unclear whether AGE consumption directly changes appetite; therefore, this effect requires further investigation.

The exact mechanism by which increased adipose tissue mass induces metabolic dysfunction and atherogenic dyslipidemia is unclear. Adipose tissue lipolysis significantly promotes circulating fatty acids and is associated with hepatic steatosis [35,36]. Our findings demonstrate that HFD significantly increased plasma TC, LDL-C, and TG levels in comparison with the ND. It is well known that increased plasma cholesterol increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis [37]. Some studies have shown that exercise training inhibits the development of hepatic steatosis and reduces serum TG in obese rats [38,39]. A previous study showed that garlic extract consumption attenuated serum TG in humans with high blood cholesterol [40]. Surprisingly, exercise or AGE alone did not affect TG, but the combination of exercise with AGE supplementation attenuated HFD-induced hypertriglyceridemia. These results may indicate decreased TG levels were available for liver-induced lipid synthesis [41], and insulin action in the liver was improved [42] with Exercise+AGE. The present study demonstrates that AGE supplementation reduced T-C and LDL-C levels, effects that were not observed following Exercise or Exercise+AGE. This may be because AGE lower cholesterol in part by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis [43].

Obesity leads to chronic low-grade inflammation that is associated with white adipose tissue, which produces and secretes a wide range of inflammatory molecules [44]. Previous studies have demonstrated elevated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels in obese subjects, which decrease following weight loss [45]. Garlic extract has been shown to decrease IL-6 and TNF-α, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect [46,47]. In our study, we did not find any significant changes in IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP following HFD. However, exercise with and without AGE administration decreased plasma IL-6 levels, but the result was not statistically significant. Based on previous reports, we expected increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels with HFD [48]. However, it is possible that a 10-week HFD regimen was not sufficient to elicit an appreciable increase. Although CRP was not significantly increased by HFD, exercise alone and in combination with AGE reduced CRP levels. These findings confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, and this effect was greater when AGE was not included in the regimen. Previous studies have been controversial, and some researchers reported that exercise training may decrease inflammatory cytokines [44,49]. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of exercise training during HFD is unclear and requires further investigation.

In conclusion, this study demonstrated that AGE supplementation and exercise have beneficial effects on reducing weight and visceral fat gain in rats fed with HFD. AGE with and without exercise, but not exercise alone, effectively lowered blood lipids levels. In addition, AGE with exercise is more effective in controlling obesity and TG levels than either intervention alone. However, more extensive research is needed before recommending AGE supplementation to obese humans.


Notes

This work was supported by Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0020224, and R13-2007-023-00000-0).

References
1. Goran MI,Treuth MS. Energy expenditure, physical activity, and obesity in childrenPediatr Clin North AmYear: 20014893195311494644
2. Kennedy RL,Chokkalingham K,Srinivasan R. Obesity in the elderly: who should we be treating, and why, and how?Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab CareYear: 200473915090896
3. Steinberger J,Daniels SR. American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee (Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young)American Heart Association Diabetes Committee (Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism)Obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in children: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee (Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young) and the Diabetes Committee (Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism)CirculationYear: 20031071448145312642369
4. Yang G,Badeanlou L,Bielawski J,Roberts AJ,Hannun YA,Samad F. Central role of ceramide biosynthesis in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, and the metabolic syndromeAm J Physiol Endocrinol MetabYear: 2009297E211E22419435851
5. Ansell BJ,Watson KE,Fogelman AM,Navab M,Fonarow GC. High-density lipoprotein function recent advancesJ Am Coll CardiolYear: 2005461792179816286161
6. Tuomilehto J,Lindström J,Eriksson JG,Valle TT,Hämäläinen H,Ilanne-Parikka P,Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S,Laakso M,Louheranta A,Rastas M,Salminen V,Uusitupa M. Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study GroupPrevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose toleranceN Engl J MedYear: 20013441343135011333990
7. Gollisch KS,Brandauer J,Jessen N,Toyoda T,Nayer A,Hirshman MF,Goodyear LJ. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed ratsAm J Physiol Endocrinol MetabYear: 2009297E495E50419491293
8. Wang X,Cheng M,Zhao M,Ge A,Guo F,Zhang M,Yang Y,Liu L,Yang N. Differential effects of high-fat-diet rich in lard oil or soybean oil on osteopontin expression and inflammation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese ratsEur J NutrYear: 2012 Forthcoming.
9. Hotamisligil GS,Erbay E. Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseasesNat Rev ImmunolYear: 2008892393419029988
10. Szekanecz Z. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerosisIsr Med Assoc JYear: 20081052953018751634
11. Quak SH,Furnes R,Lavine J,Baur LA. Obesity Working GroupObesity in children and adolescentsJ Pediatr Gastroenterol NutrYear: 20084725425918664884
12. Tzotzas T,Evangelou P,Kiortsis DN. Obesity, weight loss and conditional cardiovascular risk factorsObes RevYear: 201112e282e28921054756
13. Li W,Wang D,Song G,Zuo C,Qiao X,Qin S. The effect of combination therapy of allicin and fenofibrate on high fat diet-induced vascular endothelium dysfunction and liver damage in ratsLipids Health DisYear: 2010913121073749
14. Karmakar S,Das D,Maiti A,Majumdar S,Mukherjee P,Das AS,Mitra C. Black tea prevents high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitisPhytother ResYear: 2011251073108121452373
15. Cao ZH,Gu DH,Lin QY,Xu ZQ,Huang QC,Rao H,Liu EW,Jia JJ,Ge CR. Effect of pu-erh tea on body fat and lipid profiles in rats with diet-induced obesityPhytother ResYear: 20112523423820641056
16. Seo EY,Ha AW,Kim WK. Alpha-lipoic acid reduced weight gain and improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high fat dietNutr Res PractYear: 2012619520022808342
17. Banerjee SK,Maulik SK. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a reviewNutr JYear: 20021412537594
18. Amagase H,Petesch BL,Matsuura H,Kasuga S,Itakura Y. Intake of garlic and its bioactive componentsJ NutrYear: 2001131955S962S11238796
19. Yeh YY,Yeh SM. Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesisLipidsYear: 1994291891938170288
20. Ide N,Lau BH. Aged garlic extract attenuates intracellular oxidative stressPhytomedicineYear: 1999612513110374252
21. Zare A,Farzaneh P,Pourpak Z,Zahedi F,Moin M,Shahabi S,Hassan ZM. Purified aged garlic extract modulates allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c miceIran J Allergy Asthma ImmunolYear: 2008713314118780948
22. Xu X,Ying Z,Cai M,Xu Z,Li Y,Jiang SY,Tzan K,Wang A,Parthasarathy S,He G,Rajagopalan S,Sun Q. Exercise ameliorates high-fat diet-induced metabolic and vascular dysfunction, and increases adipocyte progenitor cell population in brown adipose tissueAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp PhysiolYear: 2011300R1115R112521368268
23. Touati S,Meziri F,Devaux S,Berthelot A,Touyz RM,Laurant P. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese ratsMed Sci Sports ExercYear: 20114339840720631645
24. Torrens C,Hanson MA,Gluckman PD,Vickers MH. Maternal undernutrition leads to endothelial dysfunction in adult male rat offspring independent of postnatal dietBr J NutrYear: 2009101273318492297
25. Moriguchi T,Saito H,Nishiyama N. Aged garlic extract prolongs longevity and improves spatial memory deficit in senescence-accelerated mouseBiol Pharm BullYear: 1996193053078850329
26. Morihara N,Ushijima M,Kashimoto N,Sumioka I,Nishihama T,Hayama M,Takeda H. Aged garlic extract ameliorates physical fatigueBiol Pharm BullYear: 20062996296616651727
27. Boor P,Celec P,Behuliak M,Grancic P,Kebis A,Kukan M,Pronayová N,Liptaj T,Ostendorf T,Sebeková K. Regular moderate exercise reduces advanced glycation and ameliorates early diabetic nephropathy in obese Zucker ratsMetabolismYear: 2009581669167719608208
28. Iyer A,Kauter K,Alam MA,Hwang SH,Morisseau C,Hammock BD,Brown L. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome in ratsExp Diabetes ResYear: 2012201275861422007192
29. Handa P,Tateya S,Rizzo NO,Cheng AM,Morgan-Stevenson V,Han CY,Clowes AW,Daum G,O'Brien KD,Schwartz MW,Chait A,Kim F. Reduced vascular nitric oxide-cGMP signaling contributes to adipose tissue inflammation during high-fat feedingArterioscler Thromb Vasc BiolYear: 2011312827283521903940
30. Burneiko RC,Diniz YS,Galhardi CM,Rodrigues HG,Ebaid GM,Faine LA,Padovani CR,Cicogna AC,Novelli EL. Interaction of hypercaloric diet and physical exercise on lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant defensesFood Chem ToxicolYear: 2006441167117216516366
31. Buettner R,Parhofer KG,Woenckhaus M,Wrede CE,Kunz-Schughart LA,Schölmerich J,Bollheimer LC. Defining high-fat-diet rat models: metabolic and molecular effects of different fat typesJ Mol EndocrinolYear: 20063648550116720718
32. Jakicic JM. Exercise in the treatment of obesityEndocrinol Metab Clin North AmYear: 20033296798014711070
33. Hagan S,Niswender KD. Neuroendocrine regulation of food intakePediatr Blood CancerYear: 20125814915321953791
34. Flores MB,Fernandes MF,Ropelle ER,Faria MC,Ueno M,Velloso LA,Saad MJ,Carvalheira JB. Exercise improves insulin and leptin sensitivity in hypothalamus of Wistar ratsDiabetesYear: 2006552554256116936204
35. Maljaars J,Peters HP,Masclee AM. Review article: The gastrointestinal tract: neuroendocrine regulation of satiety and food intakeAliment Pharmacol TherYear: 200726Suppl 224125018081667
36. Mastorakos G,Zapanti E. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and obesity: the role of corticotropin releasing hormoneNutr NeurosciYear: 2004727128015682923
37. Kawaguchi H,Miyoshi N,Miura N,Fujiki M,Horiuchi M,Izumi Y,Miyajima H,Nagata R,Misumi K,Takeuchi T,Tanimoto A,Yoshida H. Microminipig, a non-rodent experimental animal optimized for life science research:novel atherosclerosis model induced by high fat and cholesterol dietJ Pharmacol SciYear: 201111511512121258170
38. Rector RS,Thyfault JP,Morris RT,Laye MJ,Borengasser SJ,Booth FW,Ibdah JA. Daily exercise increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation and prevents steatosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty ratsAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver PhysiolYear: 2008294G619G62618174272
39. Gauthier MS,Couturier K,Latour JG,Lavoie JM. Concurrent exercise prevents high-fat-diet-induced macrovesicular hepatic steatosisJ Appl PhysiolYear: 2003942127213412547845
40. Durak I,Kavutcu M,Aytaç B,Avci A,Devrim E,Ozbek H,Oztürk HS. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterolJ Nutr BiochemYear: 20041537337715157944
41. Estadella D,Oyama LM,Dâmaso AR,Ribeiro EB,Oller Do Nascimento CM. Effect of palatable hyperlipidic diet on lipid metabolism of sedentary and exercised ratsNutritionYear: 20042021822414962690
42. Mikines KJ,Sonne B,Farrell PA,Tronier B,Galbo H. Effect of physical exercise on sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin in humansAm J PhysiolYear: 1988254E248E2593126668
43. Yeh YY,Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studiesJ NutrYear: 2001131989S993S11238803
44. Bastard JP,Maachi M,Lagathu C,Kim MJ,Caron M,Vidal H,Capeau J,Feve B. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistanceEur Cytokine NetwYear: 20061741216613757
45. Moschen AR,Molnar C,Geiger S,Graziadei I,Ebenbichler CF,Weiss H,Kaser S,Kaser A,Tilg H. Anti-inflammatory effects of excessive weight loss: potent suppression of adipose interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha expressionGutYear: 2010591259126420660075
46. Hodge G,Hodge S,Han P. Allium sativum (garlic) suppresses leukocyte inflammatory cytokine production in vitro: potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseaseCytometryYear: 20024820921512210145
47. Colín-González AL,Ortiz-Plata A,Villeda-Hernández J,Barrera D,Molina-Jijón E,Pedraza-Chaverrí J,Maldonado PD. Aged garlic extract attenuates cerebral damage and cyclooxygenase-2 induction after ischemia and reperfusion in ratsPlant Foods Hum NutrYear: 20116634835421850441
48. Glatz JF,de Groot RH,Hesselink MK,Schrauwen P. Lipids in metabolic health and diseaseProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty AcidsYear: 20118519521543198
49. Petersen AM,Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exerciseJ Appl PhysiolYear: 2005981154116215772055

Article Categories:
  • Original Research

Keywords: Aged garlic extract, exercise, high fat diet, obesity, metabolic parameters.

Previous Document:  Improvement of andropause symptoms by dandelion and rooibos extract complex CRS-10 in aging male.
Next Document:  Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a ...