Document Detail

Age-specific incidence data indicate four mutations are required for human testicular cancers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21998737     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Normal human cells require a series of genetic alterations to undergo malignant transformation. Direct sequencing of human tumors has identified hundreds of mutations in tumors, but many of these are thought to be unnecessary and a result of, rather than a cause of, the tumor. The exact number of mutations to transform a normal human cell into a tumor cell is unknown. Here I show that male gonadal germ cell tumors, the most common form of testicular cancers, occur after four mutations. I infer this by constructing a mathematical model based upon the multi-hit hypothesis and comparing it to the age-specific incidence data. This result is consistent with the multi-hit hypothesis, and implies that these cancers are genetically or epigenetically predetermined at birth or an early age.
James P Brody
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-10-06
Journal Detail:
Title:  PloS one     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1932-6203     ISO Abbreviation:  PLoS ONE     Publication Date:  2011  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-10-14     Completed Date:  2012-02-13     Revised Date:  2013-06-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101285081     Medline TA:  PLoS One     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e25978     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.
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MeSH Terms
Age Distribution
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology*,  genetics*,  pathology
Young Adult

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