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Advancement in the examination of the human cardiac sinus node: an unexpected architecture and a novel cell type could interest the forensic science.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20679878     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
We have investigated the morphology of the sinus node of the human cardiac conduction system. Until today the sinus node (SN) is described as a heterogeneous system composed of 2 types of cells, namely, P or pale and T or transitional cells which are immersed in the matrix around the sinus nodal artery. T cells are said to share characteristics of P cells and of peripheral working atrial myocardial cells. This study was carried out on autoptic and explanted specimens using histochemical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic methods.Our investigations show that SN tissue has a quite different cellular composition, ie, spherical and/or star-shaped cells organized in clusters with long cytoplasmic processes (type P), transitional cells, similar to myocytes but with a reduced number of sarcomeres (type T) and, finally, as yet not described in the literature, fibroblast-like cells with long bi-tripolar extensions contacting cells. Interestingly, SN is squared by connective and elastic fibers geometrically arranged. Immunohistochemistry shows that the 3 cell types of the SN node express mesenchymal markers revelatory of their embryological origin. Innervation appears to be more complex than previously thought; we identified a system of synaptophysin-positive cholinergic vesicles dependent on the sympathetic system and parasympathetic fibers expressing S100 protein.Overall results indicate that the SN has an unexpected, systematic architecture.
Tiziana Balbi; Claudio Ghimenton; Gianandrea Pasquinelli; Laura Foroni; Marco Grillini; Giovanni Pierini
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology     Volume:  32     ISSN:  1533-404X     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Forensic Med Pathol     Publication Date:  2011 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-05-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8108948     Medline TA:  Am J Forensic Med Pathol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  112-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
From the *Institute of Surgical Pathology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna; †Department of Pathology, Borgo Trento Hospital, Verona; ‡Department of Anestesiological and Specialistic Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna; and §Legal Medicine Institute, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
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