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Advanced measurement techniques of regional myocardial function to assess the effects of cardiac regenerative therapy in different models of ischaemic cardiomyopathy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22707453     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Cardiac regenerative therapy is still not used in daily clinical practice. A reason for this might be the modest effect on relevant global clinical endpoints [i.e. ejection fraction (EF)] in preclinical studies. To introduce proper improvement strategies, it is important to extend the focus from clinical endpoints to more detailed local measures of cardiac function. In this review, we discuss the measurement principles of all invasive and non-invasive techniques that are used to assess the local effects of cardiac regenerative therapy in order to improve feedback to researchers unravelling the dominant pathways that lead to effective cardiac regeneration. Generally adopted mechanisms of cardiac regenerative therapy are: (i) vasculogenesis, (ii) cardiomyogenesis, and (iii) matrix-assisted myocardium stabilization. Since direct in vivo measures of these mechanisms do not exist, we discuss the measurement techniques of local microvascular resistance, myocardial perfusion, viability, fibrosis, and deformation imaging. The ability of these techniques to reflect the mechanism of cardiac regenerative therapy, and the results of applications in stem cell studies are discussed, and critically commented upon. Special attention is given to applications of deformation imaging, since this has recently been suggested and used as a potential new technique to assess local changes of cardiac biomechanics, which requires special knowledge about cardiac physiology. We conclude that besides the clinically relevant EF measurements, detailed measures of local cardiac function provide information about the local changes induced by cardiac regenerative therapy. In particular, combination of deformation imaging, by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, with simultaneously measured local geometry and pressure measurements is a promising approach to assess the effects of cardiac regenerative therapy on local cardiac biomechanics. This approach provides information about local tissue contractility, stiffness, and thereby remodelling. We recommend that researchers use this comprehensive approach in future studies.
Authors:
Frebus J van Slochteren; Arco J Teske; Tycho I G van der Spoel; Stefan Koudstaal; Pieter A Doevendans; Joost P G Sluijter; Maarten J M Cramer; Steven A J Chamuleau
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-6-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging     Volume:  -     ISSN:  2047-2412     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-6-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101573788     Medline TA:  Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, F02.324, PO Box 85500, GA 3508 Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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