Document Detail

Adjuvants in pediatric regional anesthesia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24645864     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
SUMMARY Local anesthetics have a limited duration of action. Adjuvants are used to prolong the duration of action and to augment analgesia allowing lower concentrations of local anesthetic to be used. Adjuvants have been used more extensively with neuraxial blocks, particularly caudal epidural blocks, but more recently to supplement peripheral nerve blocks. Intrathecal adjuvants are not covered in this review since spinal anesthesia is not widely used in children except in ex-premature infants. Morphine is the historical gold-standard with which other adjuvants are compared. Clonidine is most useful and is becoming increasingly popular, while the side-effect profile of other agents reduces their utility. Concerns with regard to the neurotoxicity of ketamine in animal models has led to its withdrawal in some countries.
Adrian Bosenberg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pain management     Volume:  2     ISSN:  1758-1877     ISO Abbreviation:  Pain Manag     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-03-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101555934     Medline TA:  Pain Manag     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  479-86     Citation Subset:  IM    
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