Document Detail

Acute toxicity of several organophosphorous insecticides and protection by cholinergic antagonists and 2-PAM on Artemia salina larvae.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8854833     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, methylchlorpyrifos, parathion and methylparathion to three age classes of Artemia salina was determined. In general, A. salina 24-h old was less sensitive to these organophosphorous insecticides (OPI) than A. salina 48-h old and A. salina 48-h old was significantly more tolerant than A. salina 72-h old, in contrast, chlorpyrifos was equally toxic to A. salina 48- and 72-h old. There were some differences among the three age classes of A. salina in the relative order of toxicity of OPI tested. The rank order of toxicity to A. salina 48-h old was methylparathion < parathion < methyl-chlorpyrifos < chlorpyrifos, while to A. salina 24- and 72-h old it was methylparathion = parathion < methyl-chlorpyrifos < chlorpyrifos. The protective effect of the cholinergic antagonists atropine, hexamethonium, pirenzepine and 11-(2-((diethyl-amino)methyl)-1-piperidinylacetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)-(1,4)-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) and a cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) on the mortality due to four selected OPI in Artemia salina 24-h old was investigated. The lethal action of OPI tested was completely prevented by pretreatment of Artemia salina 24-h old with 2-PAM (10(-5) M) and atropine (10(-4 )M). However no concentration of hexamethonium, pirenzepine or AF-DX 116 protected 100% of the animals poisoned by LC84 of the OPI selected, maximum protection obtained was 71 to 88%. In contrast, the maximum inhibition of mortality obtained with AF-DX 116 pretreatment was about 55% because this compound was used at concentrations which were non toxic to control Artemia salina. Atropine, hexamethonium, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and 2-PAM afforded 50 % protection (IC50) of Artemia salina against mortality by LC84 of the OPI selected at concentrations in the range of 6.62x10(-7)-1.6x10(-6) M, 2. 38x10(-4)-2.05x10(-3)M, 8.91x10(-7)-1.24x10(-6) M, 9.66x10(-8)-1. 34x10(-7 )M, and 1.95x10(-8)-2.73x10(-8 )M, respectively. Pretreatment of atropine plus 2-PAM to determine whether this combination afforded greater inhibition of the lethality induced by four OPI tested than pretreatment with either atropine or 2-PAM alone was investigated. Atropine (10(-5) M) in combination with 2-PAM (10(-7 )M) inhibited completely the acute toxicity of all OPI tested, while the pretreatment with atropine (10(-6) M) plus 2-PAM at the same concentration gave a inhibition of mortality (about 62%) significantly greater than each antagonist alone (about 14 and 46%, respectively).
S Sánchez-Fortún; F Sanz; M V Barahona
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology     Volume:  31     ISSN:  0090-4341     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  1996 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-12-05     Completed Date:  1996-12-05     Revised Date:  2009-11-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0357245     Medline TA:  Arch Environ Contam Toxicol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  391-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Departamento de Toxicología y Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
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MeSH Terms
Artemia / embryology
Atropine / pharmacology
Chlorpyrifos / chemistry,  toxicity
Cholinergic Antagonists / pharmacology*
Cholinesterase Reactivators / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Cysts / metabolism
Hexamethonium / pharmacology
Insecticides / toxicity*
Larva / drug effects*
Methyl Parathion / toxicity
Parasympatholytics / pharmacology
Parathion / toxicity
Pirenzepine / analogs & derivatives,  pharmacology
Poisoning / mortality
Pralidoxime Compounds / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Species Specificity
Structure-Activity Relationship
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cholinergic Antagonists; 0/Cholinesterase Reactivators; 0/Insecticides; 0/Parasympatholytics; 0/Pralidoxime Compounds; 102394-31-0/otenzepad; 28797-61-7/Pirenzepine; 2921-88-2/Chlorpyrifos; 298-00-0/Methyl Parathion; 51-55-8/Atropine; 56-38-2/Parathion; 60-26-4/Hexamethonium; 6735-59-7/pralidoxime

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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