Document Detail

Acute toxicity of methanol in the folate-deficient acatalasemic mouse.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7157404     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Formate acidosis is the chief measurable biochemical characteristic of acute methanol toxicity in man. Its marked elevation in the blood stream of primates has been proposed to account for their much greater susceptibility versus rodents to methanol poisoning. Therefore, a study was undertaken to assess whether folic acid deficient (FAD) mice which accumulate formate are much more sensitive to the lethal effects of this alcohol than folic acid sufficient (FAS) mice. Moreover, because some formate is oxidized by catalase-H2O2 in rodents, but not in primates, we also compared the urinary excretion and blood plasma accumulation of formate and the methanol sensitivity of acatalasemic mice. Methanol-dosed C57BL/6Csb (acatalasemic) mice exhibit slightly lower LD50S than CSa (normal catalase) mice, irrespective of their folate state. CSb-FAD mice excreted much more formate and developed higher plasma formate concentrations (11-17 mM) than identically dosed CSa-FAD animals (6 mM). However, in no instance did a folate deficiency produce a large reciprocal decrease in the oral or i.p. LD50 that would be expected from a huge increase (greater than 10-fold) in the 24-h blood plasma formate level. A low methionine (0.2%) intake did not decrease the oral methanol LD50 of CSb-FAD mice, although excess dietary methionine (1.8%) did lower it from 7.1 to 6.4 g/kg. Methanol treated (4 g/kg) Csb-FAD mice excreted 30.8-48.2% of the oral dose as urinary formate, depending on the level of dietary methionine. Csb-FAS and -FAD mice which were given 2 g/kg sodium formate orally (LD50 = 4.7 and 3.7 g/kg) cleared this dose from the blood within 24 h and excreted 58% and 76% of it, respectively, in the urine. Our results indicate that the plasma formate concentration does not correlate well with methanol lethality in Csb-FAS vs. -FAD mice. In addition, urinary excretion, not oxidation, is the primary means by which mice, and probably rats, eliminate high levels of blood formate. Since the Csb-FAD mouse attains high plasma formate levels and low blood pH-values similar to those which have been reported for methanol poisoned monkeys, it appears to be of value as an inexpensive small animal model for further studies of lethal methanol toxicity and the contribution of formate to this process.
E N Smith; R T Taylor
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicology     Volume:  25     ISSN:  0300-483X     ISO Abbreviation:  Toxicology     Publication Date:  1982  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1983-03-24     Completed Date:  1983-03-24     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0361055     Medline TA:  Toxicology     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  271-87     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Folic Acid Deficiency / physiopathology*
Formates / metabolism
Formic Acids*
Methanol / toxicity*
Methionine / metabolism
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Sodium / pharmacology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Formates; 0/Formic Acids; 63-68-3/Methionine; 64-18-6/formic acid; 67-56-1/Methanol; 7440-23-5/Sodium

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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